GVCV, citrus mealybug, longtailed mealybugs, transmission, virus-vector relationships.


This article investigates the ability of two types of mealybugs, citrus (Planococcus citri) and longtailed (Pseudococcus longispinus) mealybugs, of acquiring and transmitting Grapevine vein-clearing virus (GVCV) in a greenhouse setting. Mealybugs are the primary vectors for most Badnaviruses, and only a few species have been shown to be aphid-transmitted. In this study, we tested the acquisition and transmission ability of two mealybug species using GVCV-infected and healthy grapevines in a greenhouse setting for three consecutive seasons. This study determined that acquisition time by the mealybugs could be as low as three days, yet the transmission of GVCV from infected grapevines to healthy grapevines by these two mealybug species was unsuccessful. Additionally, with the use of previously-developed species-specific primers, this study determined that those mealybugs captured in the greenhouse facilities at the University of Missouri could not be identified using these primers, and required primers that were specific to their regional diversity. This study contributes to the wider understanding of the acquisition and transmission of GVCV by certain mealybug species.  


Metrics Loading ...


the turnip aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach, 1843) from Missouri, USA. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 55(3), 327-328

Adhab, M., D. Finke, and J. Schoelz 2019. Turnip aphids (Lipaphis erysimi) discriminate host plants based on the strain of Cauliflower mosaic virus infection. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 31(1), 69-75

Aguirre-Rojas, L., L. Khalaf and C. Smith 2019. Barley varieties stoneham and sydney exhibit mild antibiosis and antixenosis resistance to the wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella (Keifer). Agronomy. 9(11) 748

Aguirre-Rojas, L. M., L. K. Khalaf, S. Garcés-Carrera, D. K. Sinha, W. P. Chuang, and C. M. Smith 2017. Resistance to wheat curl mite in arthropod-resistant rye-wheat translocation lines. Agronomy, 7(4), p.74.

Al-Ani, A. and F. S. Al-Ani 2010. The relationship between tractor practical velocity and different moisture content on plowing soil layer. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 41: 124-129.

Al-ani, F. S. 2012. Studying some technical indicators for a cotton planter under dry conditions. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 43: 102-111.

Al-Aani, F. S., M. J. Darr, L.J. Powell, and B.R. Covington 2018. Design and validation of an electronic data logging systems (CAN Bus) for monitoring machinery performance and management-Planting application. In 2018 ASABE Annual International Meeting (p. 1). American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers

Al-Aani, F. S. and Sadoon, O.H 2023. Modern GPS diagnostic technique to determine and map soil hardpan for enhancing agricultural operation management. Journal of Aridland Agriculture, (9), 58-62.

DOI: 10.25081/jaa.2023.v9.8511

AlShabar, S., A. Timm, and L. Khalaf 2021. Population variation of Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) in Baghdad province, central Iraq. In 2021 Third International Sustainability and Resilience Conference: Climate Change (pp. 138-141). IEEE

Al-Shammari, H. and H. Al-Zubaidy 2017. Growth threshold and degree days requirement for development and growth of citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso), Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science, 48(2), 501-506. ttps://

Aparna, G., V. Kotakadi, D. Saigopal, and M. Reddy 2012. Citrus yellow mosaic: a transmissible virus of citrus species in India. The Bioscan 7: 283-287

Baazeem, A., Alotaibi, S.S., Khalaf, L.K., Kumar, U., Zaynab, M., Alharthi, S., Darwish, H., Alghamdi, A., Jat, S.K., Al-Barty, A. and Albogami, B., 2022. Identification and environment-friendly biocontrol potential of five different bacteria against Aphis punicae and Aphis illinoisensis (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Frontiers in Microbiology, 13, p.961349

Beuning, L., P. Murphy, E. Wu, T. Batchelor, and B. Morris 1999. Molecular-based approach to the differentiation of mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) species. Journal of Economic Entomology 92: 463-472

Daane, K., M. Middleton, R. Sforza, M. Cooper, V. Walton, D. Walsh, T. Zaviezo and R. Almeida 2011. Development of a multiplex PCR for identification of vineyard mealybugs. Environmental Entomology 40: 1595-1603

Dellaporta, S., J. Wood, and J. Hicks 1983. A plant DNA minipreparation: version II. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 1: 19-21

Dongo, L. and S. Orisajo 2007. Status of cocoa swollen shoot virus disease in Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 6: 2054-2061

Golino, D., S. Sim, R. Gill, and A. Rowhani 2002. California mealybugs can spread grapevine leafroll disease. California Agriculture 56: 196-201

Gullan, P. 2000. Identification of the immature instars of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) found on citrus in Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology 39: 160-166

Hardy, N., P. Gullan, and C. Hodgson 2008. A subfamily-level classification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) based on integrated molecular and morphological data. Systematic Entomology 33: 51-71

Hearon, S. and J. Locke 1984. Graft, pollen, and seed transmission of an agent associated with top spotting in Kalanchoë blossfeldiana. Plant Disease 68: 346-350

Hull, R. 2002. Matthews' Plant Virology, 4th edition. Academic Press, London. pp: 1056

Hull, R., B. Lockart, D. Reddy, and J. Schoelz 2005. Family Caulimoviridae. In: Virus Taxonomy. Seventh Report of the ICTV, pp335-347, Academic Press, San Diego

Abbas, A and M. Jarjees 2016. Induction of systemic resistance against Barley yellow dwarf visus using Pseudomonas fluorescens and Azotobacter chroococcum. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 47(1): 368-374.


Khalaf, L. K., M. Adhab, L. M. Aguirre-Rojas and A. E. Timm 2023. Occurrences of wheat curl mite Aceria tosichella Keifer 1969 (Eriophyidae) and the associated viruses, (WSMV, HPWMoV, TriMV) in Iraq. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 54(3): 837–849.

Khalaf, L., A. Timm, W. Chuang, L. Enders, T. Hefley and C. Smith 2020. Modeling Aceria tosichella biotype distribution over geographic space and time. Plos one. 15(5) p.e0233507

Khalaf, L., W. Chuang, L. Aguirre-Rojas, P. Klein, and C. Smith 2019. Differences in Aceria tosichella population responses to wheat resistance genes and wheat virus transmission. Arthropod-Plant Interactions. 13, 807-818.

Lockhart, B. and L. Autrey 1991. Mealybug transmission of sugarcane bacilliform and sugarcane clostero-like viruses. In: III International Society of Sugarcane Technologist Pathology Workshop, 17

Lockhart, B. and N. Olszewski 1996. Schefflera ringspot virus, a widely distributed mealybug-transmitted badnavirus occurring in Schefflera and Aralia. In IX International Symposium on Virus Diseases of Ornamental Plants 432: 196-203

Lockhart, B., K. Kiratiya-Angul, P. Jones, L. Eng, P. De Silva, N. Olszewski, N. Lockhart, N. Deema, and J. Sangalang 1997. Identification of Piper yellow mottle virus, a mealybug-transmitted badnavirus infecting Piper spp. in Southeast Asia. European Journal of Plant Pathology 103: 303-311

Macanawai, A., A. Ebenebe, D. Hunter, L. Devitt, G. Hafner, and R. Harding 2005. Investigations into the seed and mealybug transmission of Taro bacilliform virus. Australasian Plant Pathology 34: 73-76

Mansor, M. and N. Al-Mallah 2017. Effect of sub-lethal dose of some insect growth inhibitors on some physical features of wings cuticle of American cockroach Periplaneta americana. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science, 48(5), 1255-1262.

Meyer, J., G. Kasdorf, L. Nel, and G. Pietersen 2008. Transmission of activated-episomal banana streak OL (badna) virus (BSOLV) to cv. Williams banana (Musa sp.) by three mealybug species. Plant Disease 92: 1158-1163

Petersen, S., C. Keith, K. Austin, S. Howard, L. Su, L., and W. Qiu 2019. A natural reservoir and transmission vector of Grapevine vein clearing virus. Plant disease, 103: 571-577

Saad, M. and K. Mahdi 2017. Using mixed Gamma and ultraviolet radiation for disinfestation of Iraqi dates fruit from Ephestia cautella. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 48(5): 1375-1380.

Schoelz, J. and M. Adhab 2021. Caulimoviruses (Caulimoviridae). Encyclopedia of Virology (Fourth Edition), Elsevier pp. 313-321

Schoelz, J., D. Volenberg, M. Adhab, Z. Fang, V. Klassen, C. Spinka, and M. Al Rwahnih 2021. A survey of viruses found in grapevine cultivars grown in Missouri. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 72(1), 73-84

Sether, D., M. Melzer, W. Borth, and J. Hu 2012. Pineapple bacilliform CO virus: diversity, detection, distribution, and transmission. Plant Disease 96: 1798-1804

Sial, M. U., T. Farooq, L. K. Khalaf, S. Rahman, M. Asad, and B. A. Paray 2023. Two-step method for rapid isolation of genomic DNA and validation of R81T insecticide resistance mutation in Myzus persicae. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 30(11), p.103791.

Tekeste, M.Z., Balvanz, L.R., Al-Aani, F., Boesenberg, A. and Hatfield, J.L., 2022. Hardened Edges Effects on Wear Characteristics of Cultivator Sweeps Using Circular Soil Bin Test. Journal of Tribology, 144(2), p.024501

Zhang, Y., K. Singh, R. Kaur, and W. Qiu 2011. Association of a novel DNA virus with the grapevine vein-clearing and vine decline syndrome. Phytopathology 101: 1081-1090.




How to Cite

Luaay K. Khalaf, Yu Zhang and Mustafa Adhab (2023) “GRAPEVINE VEIN-CLEARING VIRUS IS MEALYBUG-BORNE BUT NOT MEALYBUG-TRANSMITTED ”, IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 54(5), pp. 1469–1477. doi: 10.36103/ijas.v54i5.1846.