• Aseel M.H. H. Al-Khafaji
  • Kadhim D. H. Al-jubouri




elicitation; algae; foliar application; vitamin B9; nitrate


The aim of this study is evaluating the impact of salicylic acid and Spirulina algae, vermicompost aqueous extracts, on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) traits. Field experiment was implemented at vegetable field of College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences - University of Baghdad during fall season 2021. The experiment was conducted using factorial arrangement within Randomized Complete Block Design with two factors and three replicates (3X3X3). Foliar spraying of salicylic acid represented the first factor (0, 150, 300 µmol.L-1), which symbolized (S0, S1, S2). The second factor was foliar application of distilled water, aqueous extracts of Spirulina (5g.L-1) and vermicompost (2:1 v/v) which symbolized (W, P, V) respectively. The results indicated the significance of interaction treatment S1P in producing the highest outer, inner leaves, head weight, folate content (24.67, 42.44, 916.7g, 142 µg.100 g-1 F.W.) respectively, in compare with control treatment S0W (15.33, 32.67, 550g, 96.3 µg.100 g-1 F.W.) respectively.


Agbo, B. E., A. I. Nta and M. O. Ajaba. 2015. A review on the use of the neem (Azadirachta indica) as a biopesticide. Journal of Biopesticide and Environment. 2(1):58-65

Ali, N. S., H. S. Rahi, and A. A. Shackir, 2014. Soil Fertitity. Arabic Community Publisher for Publication and Distribution 1st ed , pp: 307

Al-Khafaji, Aseel. M. H. H. and Kadhim D. H. Al-jubouri. 2022. Influence of aqueous extract of barley sprouts, trehalose, and calcium on growth, quality and yield of carrot. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 53(1): 133-140

Al-Khafaji, Aseel. M. H. H. and Kadhim D. H. Al-jubouri. 2022. Maximization carrot minerals preserve and antioxidant capacity by foliar application of aqueous barley sprouts extract, trehalose, and calcium. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 53(1):122-132

Al-Khafaji, Aseel. M. H. H., N. J. K. Al-Amri, and N. H. A. Al-Dulaimi. 2022. Growth, yield, and antioxidant traits of different parts of beetroot as affected by vermicompost and glutathione. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 53(5): 1107-1114

Baenas, N., C. García-Viguera, and D. A. Moreno. 2014. Elicitation: a tool for enriching the bioactive composition of foods. Molecules, 19(9), 13541-13563

Bankole, A. E., C. E. Umebese, R. T. Feyisola, and T. O. Bamise, 2018. Influence of salicylic acid on the growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa var longifolia) during reduced leaf water potential. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 22(4), 543-540

Belt, K., S. Huang, L. F. Thatcher, H. Casarotto, K. B. Singh, O. Van Aken, and A. H. Millar. 2017. Salicylic Acid-Dependent Plant Stress Signaling via Mitochondrial Succinate Dehydrogenase. Plant Physiology. 173, 2029-2040

Brkić, D., J. Bošnir, M. Bevardi, A. G. Bošković, S. Miloš, , D. Lasić, and N. U. Trstenjak. 2017. Nitrate in leafy green vegetables and estimated intake. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 14(3), 31-41

Chu, W. L., Y. W. Lim, A. K. Radhakrishnan, and P. E. Lim. 2010. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 10(1), 1-8

Diabaté, D., J. A. Gnago, K. Koffi, and Y. Tano. 2014. The effect of pesticides and aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) and Jatropha carcus L. on Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrididae) and Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) found on tomato plants in Côte d’Ivoire

Hassan, S. M., M. Ashour, and A. A. F. Soliman. 2017. Anticancer activity, antioxidant activity, mineral contents, vegetative and yield of Eruca sativa using foliar application of autoclaved cellular extract of Spirulina platensis extract, comparing to NPK fertilizers. Journal of plant Production, 8(4), 529-536

Jaoko V, N. T. Taning, S. Backx . J. Mulatya, J. Van den Abeele, T. Magomere, F.Olubayo, S. Mangelinckx, S.PO.Werbrouck and G. Smagghe. 2020. The Phytochemical Composition of Melia volkensii and Its Potential for Insect Pest Management. Plants;9(2):143.https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9020143

Kamson, W., R. R. Lahay, and N. Rahmawati, 2021. Invigoration of expired chilli plant (Capsicum frutescens L.) seeds with various concentrations and soaking duration of bean sprout extract. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science,782(4):1-6

Karen, E C., L. G. Mikael, K. Y. Leung, N. Lévesque, L. Deng, Q. Wu, O. V Malysheva, A. Best, M. A Caudill, N. D. E. Greene, and R. Rozen. 2015. High folic acid consumption leads to pseudo-MTHFR deficiency, altered lipid metabolism, and liver injury in mice, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,101(3):646–658

Kim, M. J., Y. Moon, , J. C. Tou, , B. Mou, , and N. L. Waterland. 2016. Nutritional value, bioactive compounds and health benefits of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 49: 19-34

Kołton, A., O. Długosz-Grochowska, R. Wojciechowska, and M. Czaja, 2022. Biosynthesis regulation of folates and phenols in plants. Scientia Horticulturae, 291: 1-15

Morris MC, and C. C. Tangney. 2007. Is dietary intake of folate too low? Lancet 369:166–167

Natesh, H. N., L. Abbey, and S. K. Asiedu. 2017. An overview of nutritional and anti nutritional factors in green leafy vegetables. Horticult Int J. ;1(2):58-65

Nawrocka D, K. Kornicka, A. Śmieszek, and K. Marycz .2017. Spirulina platensis improves mitochondrial function impaired by elevated oxidative stress in Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (ASCs) and Intestinal Epithelial Cells (IECs), and enhances insulin sensitivity in Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) horses. Mar Drugs 15:237

Pant, A. P., T. J. Radovich, N. V. Hue, S. T. Talcott, and K. A. Krenek. 2009. Vermicompost extracts influence growth, mineral nutrients, phytonutrients and antioxidant activity in pak choi (Brassica rapa cv. Bonsai, Chinensis group) grown under vermicompost and chemical fertiliser. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 89(14), 2383-2392

Pérez-López U, J. Miranda-Apodaca, A. Muñoz-Rueda, and A. Mena-Petite. 2013. Lettuce production and antioxidant capacity are differentially modified by salt stress and light intensity under ambient and elevated CO2. J Plant Physiol 170:1517–1525

Pise N. M., and A. B. Sabale .2010. Effect of seaweed concentrates on the growth and biochemical constituents of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. J Phytol 2:50–56

Puthusseri, B., P. Divya, V. Lokesh, and B. Neelwarne. 2013. Salicylic acid-induced elicitation of folates in coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) improves bioaccessibility and reduces pro-oxidant status. Food chemistry, 136(2), 569-575

Puthusseri, B.; D. Peethambaran; V, Lokesh; K. Gyanendra; and N. Bhagyalakshmi.2017. Evaluation of folate-binding proteins and stability of folates in plant foliages.FoodChemistry.242:555-559

Rébeillé, F., S. Ravanel, S. Jabrin, R. Douce, S. Storozhenko, and D. Van Der Straeten. 2006. Folates in plants: biosynthesis, distribution, and enhancement. Physiologia Plantarum, 126 (3): 330-342

Rekha, G. S., P. K. Kaleena, D. Elumalai, , M. P. Srikumaran, and V. N. Maheswari. 2018. Effects of vermicompost and plant growth enhancers on the exo-morphological features of Capsicum annum (Linn.) Hepper. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 7(1), 83-88

Ruiz, J. L. and M. D. C. S. Sanjuan. 2022. The use of plant growth promoting bacteria for biofertigation; effects on concentrations of nutrients in inoculated aqueous vermicompost extract and on the yield and quality of tomatoes. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture,38(3): 145-161

Saini, R. K., K. V. Harish Prashanth, N. P. Shetty, and P. Giridhar. 2014. Elicitors, SA and MJ enhance carotenoids and tocopherol biosynthesis and expression of antioxidant related genes in Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 36(10), 2695-2704

Sallaku, G., I. Babaj, S. Kaciu, and A. Balliu, 2009. The influence of vermicompost on plant growth characteristics of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings under saline conditions. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 7(3-4), 869-872

Souri M. K, and M. Hatamian .2019. Aminochelates in plant nutrition: a review. J Plant Nutr 42:67–78

Tewfik, S., A. Abou El-Yazied, A. M. Bondok and H. G. Abd El-Gawad. 2020. Potential the biological or chemical control of lettuce white rot and maintain productivity. Arab Universities Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 28(2), 587-599

USDA. 2015. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28. USDA, Washington, D.C., pp:161

Vahteristo L., K. Lehikoinen, V. Ollilainen, and P. Varo 1997. Application of an HPLC assay for the determination of folate derivatives in some vegetables, fruits and berries consumed in Finland. Food Chemistry, 59:589–597

Wang, C., K. M. Riedl, and ,S. J. Schwartz. 2013. Fate of folates during vegetable juice processing—deglutamylation and interconversion. Food Res. Int. 53 (1), 440– 448

Yassen, A. A., E. M. Essa, and S. M. Zaghloul. 2019. The role of vermicompost and foliar spray of Spirulina platensis extract on vegetative growth, yield and nutrition status of lettuce plant under sandy soil. J. Agric. Biol. Sci, 14, 1-7

Zaller, J. G. .2006. Foliar spraying of vermicornpost extracts: effects on fruit quality and indications of late-blight suppression of field-grown tomatoes, Biological Agriculture & Horticulture: An International Journal for Sustainable Production Systems, 24:2, 165-180.




How to Cite