EFFICIENCY OF SYNBIOTIC AS FEED ADDITIVES ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, SURVIVAL RATE AND HEALTH STATUS IN COMMON CARP CHALLENGED WITH SAPROLEGNIA SPP.
Keywords:prebiotic-probiotics-respiratory burst activity-water mold
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of Synbiotic (combination of probiotic and prebiotic) as feed additive on growth performance, survival rate and immune response against Saprolegnia spp. in common carp. A total of 100 C. carpio fingerlings, weighing 49.55–50.50 g were randomly distributed into five treatment groups in duplicate, fishes were fed with different concentrations as follows: (T1) 0.5 %, (T2)1.0 % ,(T3) 1.5 % and (T4 ) 2% as well as the control group were fed basal diet without any addition of synbiotic. Results showed significant increase (P< 0.05) in all growth parameters (i.e. final weight, DWG, RGR, SGR (%), FCR, FCE) compared with the control group. The highest values were observed in fish fed on the diet containing 2% and 1.5% synbiotic. Also, survival rate recorded highest value (100%) in treatment supplemented with synbiotic 2% compared with control group (75%), suggesting that the high level (2%) improve growth rate and survival rate. At the end of experimental period six fish were randomly selected from each treatment and control (C) + for challenge test in a viable fungal suspension (1×105 live zoospores/ml) of Saprolegnia spp. Considerable changes have been observed in the mean values of WBCs. Respiratory burst activity showed significant increased in all synbiotic diet compared to C+ group. These results can be considered as a beneficial dietary for improving the growth rate and immune response in common carp.
Ai, Q. H. Xu, K. Mai, W. Xu, J. Wang and W. Zhang. 2011. Effects of dietary supplementation of Bacillus subtilis and fructooligosaccharide on growth performance, survival, non-specific immune response and disease resistance of juvenile large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea. Aquaculture, 311: 155-161
Akrami, R., M. Nasri-Tajan, A. Jahedi, M. Jahedi, M.R. Mansour and S.A. Jafarpour. 2015. Effects of dietary synbiotic count, blood indices and immunity of beluga (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1754) juvenile. Aquacult. Nutr. 21: 952-959
Akrami, R. 2010. The effects of mannan on growth, survival, lactobacillus bacterial oligosaccharide on growth, survival, body composition and resistance of Caspian Sea white fish (Rutilus rutilus). J. Mar.Sci. and Technology, 21: 8-14
Al-Faragi, J.K. and S.A.A. Al- Saphar, 2013. Effect of local probiotic on common carp Cyprinus carpio growth performance and survival rate, J. Genet. and Envir. Res. Conservation, 1: 89-96
Amend, D.F. 1981. Potency testing of fish vaccines. In: Anderson, D.P. and Hennessen, H. (Eds).Fish Biologies: Serodiagnostics and Vaccines. Devel. Biol. Stand., 49: 447- 454
Andrews, S. R., N. P. Sahu, A. K. Pal, S.C. Mukherjee and S. Kumar. 2011. Yeast extract, brewer’s yeast and spirulina in diets for Labeo rohita fingerlings affect haemato-immunological responses and survival following Aeromonas hydrophila challenge. Res. Vet. Sci. 91: 103-109
Brown, M. E. 1957. Experimental Studies on Growth in Fish Physiology, M. E. Brown (Ed). New York, Acad. Press, 1: 361-400.
Collins, M.D. and G.R Gibson. 1999. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics: approaches for modulating the microbial ecology of the gut. J. American Clinic. Nutr. 69: 1052–1057.
Denev, S., Y. Staykov, R. Moutafchieva and G. Beev. 2009. Microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract of fish and the potential application of probiotics and prebiotics in finfish aquaculture. Inter. Aqua. Res. 1:1-29.
Fadhal, A.A. and S.A. Mustafa. 2020. Influence of phytase enzyme on growth performance and survival rate challenge with Saprolegnia spp. in common carp. Iraqi J. Agric. Sci. 51 (5): 158-1465.
FAO. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1981. Report of the Symposium on New Development in the Utilization of Heated Effluent and of Recirculation System for Intensive Aquaculture. Stavanger, 29-30 May 1980. Rome, EIFFAC/ T39
Firouzbakhsh, F., Z. Mehrabi, M. Heydari, M. K. Khalesi and M. A. Tajick. 2014. Protective effects of a synbiotic against experimental Saprolegnia parasitica infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aqua. Res. 45(4): 609-618
Hoseinifar, S.H. E. Ringø, A.S. Masouleh and M.A. Esteban. 2014. Probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic supplements in sturgeon aquaculture: Reviews in Aquaculture, 6: 1- 14
Manning, T.S. and G.R. Gibson, 2004. Prebiotics. Best Practice and Research Clinical Gastroenterology, 18: 287-298
Maroni, K. 2000. Monitoring and regulation of marine aquaculture in Norway. Appl. Ichthyol. 16: 192–195.
Mehrabi, Z. F. Firouzbakhsh and A. Jafarpour. 2011. Effects of dietary supplementation of synbiotic on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters and carcass composition in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr.24: 0396–1439
Merrifield, D.L. G. Bradley, R.T.M. Baker and S.J. Davies 2010. Probiotic applications for rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) II. Effects on growth performance, feed utilization, intestinal microbiota and related health criteria post antibiotic treatment. Aqua. Nutr.1,16: 496–503
Mustafa, S. A. A. J. Al-Rudainy and J. K. Al-Faragi. 2019. Assessment of hydrogen peroxide on histopathology and survival rate in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Infected with Saprolegniasis. Iraqi J. Agric. Sci. 50 (2):697-704
Nayak, S.K. 2010. Probiotics and immunity: a fish perspective. Fish and Shellfish Immunol. 29: 2-14
Pandiyan, P. D. Balaraman, R. Thirunavukkarasu, E.G.J. George, K. Subaramaniyam and S. Manikkam. 2013. Probiotics in aquaculture. Drug Inven. Today, 5: 55-59
Roberfroid, M.B. 1998. Prebiotics and synbiotics: concepts and nutritional properties. British J. Nut. 80: 197–202
Rodriguez-Estrada, U. S. Satoh, Y. Haga, H. Fushimi, and J. Sweetman. 2009. Effects of single and combined supplementation of Enterococcus faecalis, mannan oligosaccharide and polyhydrobutyric acid on growth performance and immune response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aqua. Sci. 57: 609–617
Sahu, M.K. N.S. Swamakumar, K. Sivakumar, T. Thangaradjou, and L.Kannan. 2008. Probiotics in aquaculture: importance and future perspectives. Indian J. Microbiol. 48: 299–308
Schmalhusen, L.1926. Studien Uber Washstum and Diffrentzieung. III. Die Embryonalwachstum Skurvedes Hiichen. Wilhem Roux arch, entwic klungsmech. Org, (cited by It oar, W. S., J. Randall and J.R. Brett. Fish PhysiologyVIII), 322-387
Siwickiet, A.K. D.P. Anderson and G.L. Rumsey. 1994. Dietary intake of Immunostimulants by rainbow trout effects non-specific immunity and protection against furunculosis. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 41: 125-139
Staykov, Y., P. Spring, S. Denev and J.Sweetman 2007. Effect of a mannan oligosaccharide on the growth performance and immune status of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aqua. Int. 5(2):153–161
Sun, Y.Z. H.L. Yang, R.L. Ma, K. Song and J.S. Li. 2011. Effect of Lactococcus lactis and Enterococcus faecium on growth performance, digestive enzymes and immune responseof grouper Epinephelus coioides. Aquac. Nutr. 18: 281–289.
Talpur, A.D. and M. Ikhwanuddin 2013. Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf dietary effects on the immunity response and disease resistance of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer challenged with Vibrio harveyi. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 34:254–264.
Talpur, A.D. M.A. Munir, A. Mary and R. Hashim. 2014. Dietary probiotics and prebiotics improved food acceptability, growth performance, haematology and immunological parameters and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in snakehead (Channa striata) fingerlings. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 39: 34-41
Thrall, M. A., D. C. Bker, T. W. Campbell, D. Dinicola, M. J. Fettman, E. D. Lassen, A. Reber and G. Weiser. 2006. Veterinary hematology and clinical chemistary. Lippincott Williams, Philadelphia PP. 214 -219.
Uten, E. 1978. Standard Methods and Terminology in Fin Fish Nutrition and Fish Feed Technology. Hamburg. 20-23. June vol. 111. Berlin, 1979
Wang, Y.B. and Z. Xu. 2006. Effect of probiotics for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) based on growth performance and digestive enzyme activities. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 127: 283–292
Wang, Y. B., Z. Tian, J. Yao and W. Li. 2008. Effect of probiotics, Enterococcus faecium, on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) growth performance and immune response. Aquaculture, 277: 203–207
Welker, T.L. C. Lim, M. Yildirim-Aksoy , R. Shelby and P.H. Klesius. 2007. Immune response and resistance to stress and Edwardsiella ictaluri, fed diets containing commercial whole-cell yeast or yeast subcomponents. J. World Aqua. Soc. 38(1): 24–35
Ye, J.D. K.Wang, F.D. Li and Y.Z. Sun.2011. Single or combined effects of fructo- and mannan oligosaccharide supplements and Bacillus clausii on the growth, feed utilization, body composition, digestive enzyme activity, innate immune response and lipid metabolism of the Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Aquac. Nutr. 17: 902-911.
Zhang, C. N. X.F. Li, W. N. Xu, G. Z. Jiang, K.L. Lu, L.N. Wang and W.-B. Liu, 2013. Combined effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide supplementation and Bacillus licheniformis on innate immunity, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of triangular bream (Megalobrama terminalis). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 35: 1380–1386.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.