DETERMINATION OF INHIBITION ACTIVITY OF α- AMYLASE ENZYME, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, ANTIBACTERIAL Activity AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS BY USING SOME MEDICAL PLANTS
The inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes such as α-amylase can be an important strategy in the postprandial blood glucose level in patients with type II diabetes, plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence may be used as therapeutic. Nine types of plants include (Clove, Lemon, Chamomile, Radish, Ginger, Black seed, pomegranate, Beetroot and Garlic) were used in this study to select the optimum plant material that inhibited α- amylase enzyme. Raphanus raphanistrum was chosen, it had the highest inhibition activity of the enzyme (95.5%). Also sodium phosphate buffer (0.2 M, pH 7.5) was selected as a best extraction buffer of plants inhibitor with inhibition activity 83%. The optimum extraction ratio represented by 1:20 (w:v) after 90 min, it was given 96.8% enzyme inhibition activity. Antioxidant activities of plants were performed using DPPH free radical scavenging assay, and lemon had a highest by 94.4%. This confirms that the plant might protect cells from oxidative damage, resulting in certain diseases. The antimicrobial properties of lemon, garlic, clove have been proven the highest effective against selected human pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Enterococcus sp. Also total phenolic content (TPC) of lemon and garlic were estimated spectrophotometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE), lemon revealed the highest value compared with garlic.