plant dry weight, tillering, flowering stages, flag leaf area, tocopherol, chlorophyll a and b, total chlorophyll


Over the course of two winter periods, researchers at the Agricultural Experiment Unit, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, studied the effects of covering wheat (the Al-Furat variety) and “vitamins B9” (“folic acid”) and E “(tocopherol)” on a number of growth traits. Three independent trials were conducted utilizing a factorial design within a Randomized Complete Block Design. The first component was folic acid at 0, 250, and 500 mg L-1; the second component was vitamin E at 0, 1, and 2 ml L-1. At the start of the tillering and flowering stages, both vitamins were applied. All measured characteristics (plant height, flag leaf area, total tiller count, plant dry weight at booting and 100% blooming phases, and “vitamin B9” 500 mg L-1) were found exceeded at this dosage. Aside from that, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and b content in leaves, and the pace of crop growth.Since the focus of 2 ml L-1 was higher than most of the attributes, applying vitamin E influenced the growth characteristics. The number of tillers, plant dry weight, crop growth rate, total chlorophyll, biological yield, chlorophyll a and b  in leaves.


Al-Hashimi, M. G. and N. H. Zeboon. 2024. Effect of covering with vitamin b9 and e, and the amino acid arginine of some growth characters for two varieties of maize. Iraqi. Journal of Agricultural Sciences – 55(special):90-98.

Al-Hassan, M. F. H. and J. W. Mahmoud.2023. The Role of the Hierarchy of the Production Tillers in wheat Cultivar km 5180 under the Effect of Sowing Spaces. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science.1259(1)012112.

DOI 10.1088/1755-1315/1259/1/012112

Al-Hassan, M. F. H. and J. W. Mahmoud. 2019. The contribution of the main stem and the primary tillering in three varieties of wheat under the influence of the five seed rates. Biochem. Cell. Arch. 19: 1353-60. DOI:10.35124/bca.2019.19.1.1353

Al-Hassan, M. F. H. and J. W. Mahmoud.2023. The contribution of the main stem and branches of the approved cultivar km5180 to the growth characteristics by the effect of the number of seeds per square meter. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences,54(6):1794-1801.

Al-Hassan, M. F. H., H. A. Baqir and J. W. Mahmoud.2024. The role of chlorophyll spraying according to the evolutionary standard zadoks in the growth characteristics of two cultivars of bread wheat. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences,55(1):470-478.

Al-Khafaji, A. M. H. H., and K. D. H. Al-Jubouri. 2023. Upgrading growth, yield, and folate levels of lettuce via salicylic acid and spirulina, vermicompost aqueous extracts, Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 54(1):235-241.

Al-Rubaie; A. H. S. and K. D. H. Al-Jubouri. 2023. Effect of tocopherol, trehalose and soil improvement in water productivity and industrial potatoes under water stress. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 54(4):979-995.

Al-Rubaie; A. H. S. and K. D. H. Al-Jubouri. 2023. Response of growth and yield of industrial potatoes to soil improvement and spraying with tocopherol and trehalose under water stress. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 54(4):963-978.

Andrew, W.J., C. Youngkoo, X. Chen and S.G. Pandalai .2000. vicissitudes of a vitamin. recent res. develop. in photochemi. 4: 89-98

Arrigoni, O.,G.Calabrese, L.DeGara, M.B.Brronti and R.Liso.1997.Correlation between changes in cell ascorbate and growth of lupinus albus seedlings . J.Plant Phsiol.150:302-308

Baffel,S.O.andM.M.Ibrahim.2008.Antioxidants and accumulation of a- tocopherol induce chilling tolerance in Medicago sativa. Int.J.Agric.Biol.10:593-598

Baqir, H.A. and N.H. Zeboon. 2019. Response of some wheat growth traits for for foliar covering with humic and glutamic acid. The Iraqi. J. Agric. Sci:50(6):1455-1464

Baqir, H.A. and N.H. Zeboon. 2020. Effect of Foliar Covering with Bilirubin on Growth Traits of Wheat Varieties. Indian Journal of Ecology 47 Special Issue (10): 52-56

Baqir, H.A. and M. A. S. Al-Naqeeb. 2018. response of growth and yield of the three bread wheat cultivars to applying yeast powder methods in different concentrations Int. J. Agricult. Stat. Sci. 14 (1): 327-336

Bosch, S.M., 1995. The role of a-tocopherol in plant stress tolerance. J. Plant Physiol., 162: 743-748

Burguieres, E., P. McCue, YI. Kwon and K.Shetty .2007. Effect of vitamin C and folic acid on seed vigor response and phenolic-linked antioxidant activity. Biore. Techn., 98:1393-1404

Baktash; F. Y. and M. A. Naes. 2016. Evaluation bread wheat pure lines under effect of unlike seeding rates for grain yield and it,s component. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 47(5):1132-1140.

Baktash; F. Y. and M. A. Naes. 2016. Evaluation bread wheat pure lines under effect of unlike seeding rates. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 47(5):1141-1150.

Dhahi A.M. and F. Y. Baktash. 2018. Evaluation performance of bread wheat pure lines to growth traits and proline. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 49(1):1-10.

Dhahi A.M. and F. Y. Baktash. 2018. Impact of moisture depletion percentages on some growth characters and yield for selected genotypes of bread wheat. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 49(2):160-170.

Dawood, M.G., M. A.E.Ebtihal, A. F . Shalaby and K.Gamal EL-Din.2014. Physiological response of two wheat cultivars grown under newly reclaimed sandy soil to a – tocopherol foliar application. Middle East J. of Applied Sci.4(3):771-778

De-Tullio, MC., F. Paciollac Dalla Vecchia, N.D. Rascio, S. Emerico, L. Dé Gara, R. Liso and O. Arrigoni .1999. Changes in onion root development induced by the inhibition of peptidyl-prolyl hydroxylase and influence of the ascorbate system on cell division and elongation. Plants, 209: 424-434

El-Bassiony, M.S., M.E. Gobarah and A.A. Ramadan. 2005. Effect of antioxidants on growth, yield and favism caustive agents in seeds of vicia faba L. plants grown under reclaimed sandy soil. J. of Agron., 4(4): 281 – 287

Elewi, A. Y.and N. H. Zeboon.2020. Effect of folic acid on growth traits of four sunflower Hellanthus annuus L. genotypes. Plant Archi. 20 ( 2) : 4735-4741

ELMetwally,I.M.,andM.G.Dawood.2017.Weed management folic acid and seaweed extract effects on faba bean plants and associated weeds under sandy soil conditions .Agric ,Englnt.CIGRJ.Special issu 27-34

El-Tohamy, W.A. and N.H.M. El Greadly. 2007. physiological responses, growth, yield and quality of snap beans in response to foliar application of yeast, vitamin E and zinc under sandy soil conditions. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 1(3): 294-299

Emam, M.M., A.H.EL-Sweify and N.M. Helal .2011. Efficiencies of some vitamins in improving yield and quality of flax plant. Afri. J. of Agri. Res., 6(18): 4362-4369

Fardet, A., E. Rock and R. Christin .2008. Is the in vitro antioxidant potential of whole-grain cereal and cereal produces well reflected in vivo. J. of Cer. Sci., 48: 258-276

Goodwin, T.W. 1976. Chemistry and Biochemistry of PlantPigment. 2nded. pp, Academic Press, N.Y., pb 373

Hanson,A,D, and Roje.2001.One carbon metabolism in lugher plants Annu,Rev.Plant Physiol.Plant Mol.Biol.52:119-137

Hassanein, R.A.; F.M. Bassuony, D.M. Baraka, and R.R. Khalil, 2009. Physiological effects of nicotinamide and ascrobic acid on Zea mays plant grown under salinity stress. I-Changes in growth, some relevant metabolic activities and oxidative defense systems. Res. J. of Agri. and Biol. Sci., 5:72-81

Ibrahim, M.F., H.G. Abd El-Gawad and A.M. Bondok .2015. Physiological impacts of potassium citrate and folic acid on growth, yield, and some viral diseases of potato Plant. Middle-East J. of Agri. Res., 577-589

Jabrin, S., S. Ravane, B. Gambonnet, R. Douee and F. Rebeille .2003. One-carbon metabolism in plants. Reg. of Tetra. Synth. During Girmin. and seeding Dev. Plant Phys., 131: 1431-1439

Jaddoa, K. A. and H. M. Salih. 2013. Fertilization of Wheat crop. Ministry of Agriculture. Heuristic prospectus. pp.12

Jaddoa, K.A., N.H. Zeboon and H.A.A. Baqer.2017. Effect of tillers removal and nitrogen levels on some growth traits of two bread wheat varieties. The Iraqi. J. Agric. Sci– 48(1): 274-284

Kumar, S.; R. Singh, and H. Nayyar, 2013. α- Tocopherol application modulates the response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings to elevated temperatures by mitigation of stress injury and enhancement of antioxidants. J. Plant Growth Regul., 32:307-314

Mahmood, J.W.and M.F.H. AL-hassan.2023. Effect of hierarchy of the production of tillers in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar (KM5180) under the influence of planting dates. Res. Crop. 24 (2): 236-240

Marzauk,N.M., M.R., Shafeek, Y.I. Helmy, A.A. Ahmed and Magda, A.F. Shalaby. 2014.Effect of vitamin E and yeast extract foliar application on growth, pod yield and both green pod and seed yield of broad bean (Vicia faba L.). Middle East J. of Appli.Sci.4(1): 61-67

Mohamed,N.E.M.2013. behaviour of wheat cv. masr-1 plants to foliar application of some vitamins. Nature and Sci., 11(6).

Mahmood, J. W. and M. F. H. Al-Hassan. 2022.The physiologicl contribuation of the main stem and the three primary tillers to some components of wheat yield . J. of Genetic and Environmental Resources Conservation, 10(1): 49-59

Munné-Bosch, S., and J. Falk, 2004. New insights into the function of tocopherols in plants. Planta, 218:323- 326

Naheif, E. and M. Mohamed .2013. The behavior of wheat cv. Masr-1 plant to foliar application of some vitamins. Nati. Sci., 11: 1-5

Naser, K. M., A. J. H. AL-Tameemi and H. A. Baqir. 2020. Effect of applying selenium element and ascorbic acid on reducing the harmful effect of environmental stress on wheat plants irrigated by water contaminated with lead and cadmium. Plant Archives, 20 (1): 1805-1811

Sattler, S.E., L.U. Gilliland, M. Magallanes - Lundback, M. Pollard, and D.D.Penna, 2004. Vitamin E is essential for seed longevity and for preventing lipid peroxidation during germination. Plant Cell, 16: 1419-1432

Soltani, Y., V. R. Saffari, A. A. M. Moud, and M. Mehrabani, 2012. Effect of foliar application of α-tocopherol and pyridoxine on vegetative growth, flowering, and some biochemical constituents of Calendula officinalis L. plants. African J. of Biotechnol., 11: 11931-11935

Wang, X. and P.J. Quinn, 2000. The location and function of vitamin E in membranes (review). Mol. Membr. Biol., 17:143-156

Youssif, S.B.D. 2017. Response of potatoes to foliar spray with cobalamin, folic acid, and ascorbic acid under North Sinai conditions. The Middle East. J. of Agric. Res., 6(3):662-672

Zeboon, N.H. 2016. Effect of the resiudal of suifur in soil and application of N,P,K fertilizers on growth and yield of bread wheat. The Iraqi. J. Agric. Sci – 47(6):1423-1432

Zeboon, N.H. and H.A. Baqir.2023. The Effect of Vitamin B9 and E on the Yield and Its Components of the Wheat Crop. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science. doi:10.1088/ 1755-1315 / 1158 / 6 / 062033.







How to Cite


Publication Dates

Similar Articles

1-10 of 909

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.