• W. M. Al-Younes
  • A. M. Abdelqader
  • M. KH. Abuajamieh
  • K. O. Nassar




cinnamaldehyde, thymol, feed conversion ratio, footpad lesion, additives


The current study was carried out on broiler chickens to assess whether probiotics or essential oils could be utilized instead of antibiotics growth promoters (AGP) in typical feed formulations, to determine their effectiveness. A total of 2250 broiler chicks at one-day old age were allocated into 5 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with 9 replicates per treatment and 50 chicks/replicate. The Probiotic included three strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, the essential oil (EO) was a blend of Cinnamaldehyde-Thymol, and the AGP was Lincomycin™. These additives were added to the basal diets (BD) to formulate the following dietary treatments (T): (T1) control-fed BD that is regularly used by broiler farmers (T2) control-fed BD that is regularly used by broiler farmers and supplemented with Lincomycin™ (100 g/ton) as AGP; (T3) fed BD + Probiotics (Enviva® PRO 60 g/ton); (T4) fed BD + EO (Enviva® 100g/ton); and (T5) fed BD + combination of both probiotics and EO with the same doses used in T3 and T4.  The study findings demonstrated that the use of probiotics or essential oils did not have any significant impact on the average body weight gain, final body weight, feed conversion ratio, or footpad lesion scores when compared to the AGP group. It was concluded that replacing the AGP with probiotics or EO, as natural feed additives, had no negative effects on broiler performance. The probiotic strains or the EO could be safe alternatives to AGP.


,.Abd El-Hack M. E, El-Saadony M. T, Saad AM, et al. (2022) Essential oils and their nanoemulsions as green alternatives to antibiotics in poultry nutrition: a comprehensive review. Poult Sci 101(2):101584 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101584

Abd El-Hack M. E, El-Saadony M. T, Shafi ME, et al. (2020) Probiotics in poultry feed: A comprehensive review. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 104(6):1835-1850 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101584

Al-Khalaifa H, Al-Nasser A, Al-Surayee T, et al. (2019) Effect of dietary probiotics and prebiotics on the performance of broiler chickens. Poultry Science 98(10):4465-4479 doi:https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez282

Alali WQ, Hofacre CL, Mathis GF, and Faltys G. (2013) Effect of essential oil compound on shedding and colonization of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg in broilers. Poultry Science 92(3):836-841 doi:https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2012-02783

Ameen, N. A., N. A.Rahman, , and A. H. Hassan, 2021. Preventative effects of probiotic (miaclost) on experimentally induced hypocalcemic rickets in broiler chicks. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 52(6), 1461-1474. https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v52i6.1487

Amerah AM, Jansen van Rensburg C, Plumstead PW, Kromm C, and Dunham S. (2012) Effect of feeding diets containing a probiotic or antibiotic on broiler performance, intestinal mucosa-associated avian pathogenic E. coli and litter water-soluble phosphorus. Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition 1:e7 https://doi.org/10.1017/jan.2013.4

Ayalew H, Zhang H, Wang J, et al. (2022) Potential feed additives as antibiotic alternatives in broiler production. Front Vet Sci 9:916473 https://doi:10.3389/fvets.2022.916473

Aziz, H. I., and Al-Hawezy, D. J. 2021. Effect of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotic on growth performance of broiler under different stock density. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 52(5), 1126-1138. https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v52i5.1451

Bahaddad SA, Almalki MHK OA, Alghamdi et al. (2023) Bacillus species as direct-fed microbial antibiotic alternatives for monogastric production. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 15(1):1-16

doi: 10.1007/s12602-022-09909-5

Bilgili SF, Hess JB, Blake JP, Macklin KS, Saenmahayak B, and Sibley JL. (2009) Influence of bedding material on footpad dermatitis in broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 18(3):583-589 doi:https://doi.org/10.3382/japr.2009-00023

Broom L. J. (2017) The sub-inhibitory theory for antibiotic growth promoters. Poult Sci 96(9):3104-3108 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pex114

Brown M. (2011) Modes of action of probiotics: Recent Developments. J Anim Vet Adv 10(14):1895-1900

Calik A, Omara, II, White MB, Li W, and Dalloul RA. (2019) Effects of dietary direct fed microbial supplementation on performance, intestinal morphology and immune response of broiler chickens challenged with coccidiosis. Front Vet Sci 6:463

Chattopadhyay MK. (2014) Use of antibiotics as feed additives: a burning question. Front Microbiol 5:334

doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00334

Dalloul RA, Lillehoj HS, Shellem TA, and Doerr JA. (2003) Enhanced mucosal immunity against Eimeria acervulina in broilers fed a Lactobacillus-based probiotic. Poult Sci 82(1):62-6 https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/82.1.62

Dibner JJ, and Richards JD. (2005) Antibiotic growth promoters in agriculture: history and mode of action. Poult Sci 84(4):634-43 https://doi: 10.1093/ps/84.4.634

Dorman HJ and Deans SG. (2000) Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. J Appl Microbiol 88(2):308-16 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000.00969.x

Doyle AA, and Stephens JC. (2019) A review of cinnamaldehyde and its derivatives as antibacterial agents. Fitoterapia 139:104405 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2019.104405

El-Shall NA, Shewita RS, ME and Abd El-Hack, et al. (2020) Effect of essential oils on the immune response to some viral vaccines in broiler chickens, with special reference to Newcastle disease virus. Poult Sci 99(6):2944-2954 doi: 10.1016/j.psj.2020.03.008

Ezzat, H. N. 2023. Effect of supplementation fenugreek oil to the diet on the physcological anatomical and histological traits of broilers. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 54(1), 106-113. https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v54i1.1681

Falcone P, Speranza B, Del Nobile MA, Corbo MR, and Sinigaglia M. (2005) A study on the antimicrobial activity of thymol intended as a natural preservative. J Food Prot 68(8):1664-70

doi: 10.4315/0362-028x-68.8.1664

Gadde U, Kim WH, Oh ST, and Lillehoj HS. (2017) Alternatives to antibiotics for maximizing growth performance and feed efficiency in poultry: a review. Anim Health Res Rev 18(1):26-45

doi: 10.1017/S1466252316000207

Hernández F, Madrid J, García V, Orengo J, and Megías MD. (2004) Influence of two plant extracts on broilers performance, digestibility, and digestive organ size. Poult Sci 83(2):169-74 doi: 10.1093/ps/83.2.169

Hu Z, Liu L, Guo F, et al. (2023) Dietary supplemental coated essential oils and organic acids mixture improves growth performance and gut health along with reduces Salmonella load of broiler chickens infected with Salmonella Enteritidis. J Anim Sci Biotechnol 14(1):95 doi: 10.1186/s40104-023-00889-2

Jamroz D, Wertelecki T, Houszka M, and Kamel C. (2006) Influence of diet type on the inclusion of plant origin active substances on morphological and histochemical characteristics of the stomach and jejunum walls in chicken. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 90(5-6):255-68


Jamroz D, Wiliczkiewicz A, Wertelecki T, Orda J, and Skorupińska J. (2005) Use of active substances of plant origin in chicken diets based on maize and locally grown cereals. Br Poult Sci 46(4):485-93

doi: 10.1080/00071660500191056

Jerzsele A, Szeker K, Csizinszky R, et al. (2012) Efficacy of protected sodium butyrate, a protected blend of essential oils, their combination, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spore suspension against artificially induced necrotic enteritis in broilers. Poult Sci 91(4):837-43 doi: 10.3382/ps.2011-01853

Lee KW, Li G, Lillehoj HS, et al. (2011) Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials augment macrophage function in broiler chickens. Res Vet Sci 91(3):e87-91

doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2011.01.018

Luciana Kazue O, Marcelo Biondaro Gi, Elis Regina de Moraes G, and Maria Marta L. (2012) Variations on the Efficacy of Probiotics in Poultry. In: Everlon Cid R (ed) Probiotic in Animals. IntechOpen, Rijeka, p Ch. 9

Lutful Kabir SM. (2009) The role of probiotics in the poultry industry. Int J Mol Sci 10(8):3531-46 doi: 10.3390/ijms10083531

Mehdi Y, Létourneau-Montminy M-P, Gaucher M-L, et al. (2018) Use of antibiotics in broiler production: Global impacts and alternatives. Animal Nutrition 4(2):170-178 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2018.03.002

Mitsch P, Zitterl-Eglseer K, Köhler B, Gabler C, Losa R, and Zimpernik I. (2004) The effect of two different blends of essential oil components on the proliferation of Clostridium perfringens in the intestines of broiler chickens. Poult Sci 83(4):669-75

doi: 10.1093/ps/83.4.669

Mookiah S, Sieo CC, Ramasamy K, Abdullah N, and Ho YW. (2014) Effects of dietary prebiotics, probiotic and synbiotics on performance, caecal bacterial populations and caecal fermentation concentrations of broiler chickens. J Sci Food Agric 94(2):341-8

doi: 10.1002/jsfa.6365

M’sadeq, S. A. 2019. Effect of dietary supplementation of miaclost on performance and gut morphology in broiler chickens challenged with escherichia coli. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2(50). https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v2i50.650

Mustafa, M. M. 2022. Effect of different levels of oleobiotec on production performance and egg quality traits in japanese quil. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 53(3),578-583. https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1566

Nazzaro F, Fratianni F, De Martino L, Coppola R, and De Feo V. (2013) Effect of essential oils on pathogenic bacteria. Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 6(12):1451-74

doi: 10.3390/ph6121451

Neu HC. (1992) The crisis in antibiotic resistance. Science 257(5073):1064-73

doi: 10.1126/science.257.5073.1064

Ng SC, Hart AL, Kamm MA, Stagg AJ, and Knight SC. (2008) Mechanisms of Action of Probiotics: Recent Advances. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 15(2):300-310

Panda AK, Rao SVR, Raju MVLN, and Sharma SR. (2006) Dietary Supplementation of Lactobacillus Sporogenes on Performance and Serum Biochemico - Lipid Profile of Broiler Chickens. The Journal of Poultry Science 43(3):235-240 https://doi.org/10.2141/jpsa.43.235

Park YH, Hamidon F, Rajangan C, et al. (2016) Application of Probiotics for the Production of Safe and High-quality Poultry Meat. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour 36(5):567-576

doi: 10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.5.567

Patterson JA, and Burkholder KM. (2003) Application of prebiotics and probiotics in poultry production. Poult Sci 82(4):627-31 doi: 10.1093/ps/82.4.627

Peng QY, Li JD, Li Z, Duan ZY, and Wu YP. (2016) Effects of dietary supplementation with oregano essential oil on growth performance, carcass traits and jejunal morphology in broiler chickens. Animal Feed Science and Technology 214:148-153 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2016.02.010

Qamar A, Waheed J, Hamza A, et al. (2021) The role of intestinal microbiota in chicken health, intestinal physiology and immunity. J Anim Plant Sci-Pak 31(2):342-351 doi:10.36899/Japs.2021.2.0221

Rimini S, Petracci M, and Smith DP. (2014) The use of thyme and orange essential oils blend to improve quality traits of marinated chicken meat. Poult Sci 93(8):2096-102 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03601

SAS Institute, Inc., 2010. SAS OnlineDoc Version 9.1.3, Cary, NC, USA).

Schneitz C. (2005) Competitive exclusion in poultry 30 years of research. Food Control 16(8):657-667 doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2004.06.002

Shini S, Zhang D, Aland RC, et al. (2020) Probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H57 ameliorates subclinical necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks by maintaining intestinal mucosal integrity and improving feed efficiency. Poult Sci 99(9):4278-4293 doi:10.1016/j.psj.2020.05.034

Singh G, Kapoor IP, Pandey SK, Singh UK, and Singh RK. (2002) Studies on essential oils: part 10; antibacterial activity of volatile oils of some spices. Phytother Res 16(7):680-2 doi:10.1002/ptr.951

Spernakova D, Mate D, Rozanska H, and Kovac G. (2007) Effects of dietary rosemary extract and alpha-tocopherol on the performance of chickens, meat quality, and lipid oxidation in meat storaged under chilling conditions. B Vet I Pulawy 51(4):585-589

Stappen I, Wanner J, Tabanca N, et al. (2014) Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plants of western Himalaya. Planta Med 80(13):1079-87 doi:10.1055/s-0034-1382957

Valero M, and Salmerón MC. (2003) Antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils against Bacillus cereus in tyndallized carrot broth. Int J Food Microbiol 85(1-2):73-81 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(02)00484-1

Wu Y, Wang B, Zeng Z, et al. (2019) Effects of probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum 16 and Paenibacillus polymyxa 10 on intestinal barrier function, antioxidative capacity, apoptosis, immune response, and biochemical parameters in broilers. Poult Sci 98(10):5028-5039 doi:10.3382/ps/pez226

Zeng Z, Zhang S, Wang H, and Piao X. (2015) Essential oil and aromatic plants as feed additives in non-ruminant nutrition: a review. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology 6(1):7








How to Cite


Publication Dates

Similar Articles

1-10 of 269

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.