EFFECT OF ASCORBIC ACID AND CALCIUM FOLIAR APPLICATION ON GROWTH, YIELD AND MARKETABILITY OF BROCCOLI
Keywords:Brassica oleracea, spraying with, storage, vitamin C, chlorophyll.
The experiments were carried out at the College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences - University of Baghdad during the fall season of 2021-2020 to study the effect of foliar application of ascorbic acid (0, 25, 50, 75 mg. L-1) which were symbolized as A0, A1, A2, and A3, and chelated calcium (0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 g. L-1) which were symbolized as Ca0, Ca1, Ca2, and Ca3 on the growth, yield and marketability of broccoli. A factorial experiment was carried out within the RCBD design, in a total of 16 treatments with three replicates. The main flowering heads were kept at temperatures 6-8° C for 20 days and 18-25° C for 4 days. The results were revealed that the individual and interaction treatments were recorded a significant values among the studied parameters, and the interaction treatment of A3Ca3 achieved the most significant increment of leaves area, total yield, heads weight, heads diameter, calcium content in leaves and heads, the chlorophyll and vitamin C content in the heads, 1962.54dm2.plant-1, 55.10 ton.ha-1, 889.78 g.head-1, 21.84 cm, 1.85% in leave, 1.68%, 152.35 mg.100g-1 and 305.07 mg.100g-1 respectively decreased weight loss, increased total soluble solids, and maintained chlorophyll and vitamin C in the flowering heads after storage reached 11.40%, 134.72 and 96.41 mg.100g-1, 136.40 and 130.53 mg.100g-1 respectively at two temperatures.
Abbas, M. F. and M. G. Abbas. 1992. Care and Storage of Fruits and Vegetables. Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, University of Basra, Dar Al-Hekma Press, Iraq. A. S.pp. 142
Abdul Rahman, Y. A.; S. F. Ali and H. S. Alatar. 2012. Effect of sucrose and ascorbic acid concentrations on vase life of snapdragon (Antirrhinun. Majus L.) cut flowers. Intl. J. Pure Appl. Sci. Technol. 13(2): 32-41
Abu Nuqat, F. And M. S. Al-Shater. 2011. Soil fertility and fertilization. Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University. pp: 229-243
Al-Amri, N. J. K.; A. M.H. H. Al-Khafaji and N. H. A. Al-Dulaimi. 2023. Investigating cobalamin and GSH impact on growth, quality, and yield of cabbage. Euphrates Journal of Agriculture Science-15 (1): 321-227.
Al-Asady, M. H. S. 2019. Genstat for Analyzing Agricultural Experiments. Al-Qasim Green University – Agriculture College. 2273. pp: 17-304
Al-Atushy, S. M. M. and S. M. Abdul-Qader. 2016. Effect of potssium and ascorbic acid on growth, yield and quality of olive cv.khadrawi. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 47(6): 1556-1561.
Al-Ghobashi, R. A. 2005. The Chemistry and Biology of Vitamins. Scientific Dar Alkotb for Publishing and Distribution. Cairo. The Egyptian Arabic Republic. pp: 24-201
Al-Khafaji, A. M. H. H. and K. D. H. Al-jubouri. 2022. Influence of aqueous extract of barley sprouts, trehalose, and calcium on growth, quality and yield of carrot. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 53(1): 133-140. https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i1.1517
Al-Khafaji, A. M. H. H. and K. D. H. Al-jubouri. 2022. Maximization carrot minerals preserve and antioxidant capacity by foliar application of aqueous barley sprouts extract, trehalose, and calcium. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 53(1):122-132. https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i1.1515
Al-Khafaji, A. M. H. H. and K. D. H. Al-jubouri. 2022. Enhancing growth and production of carrot plant by spraying aqueous barley sprouts extract, trehalose, and calcium. Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 9(4): 134-144. https://doi.org/10.59658/jkas.v9i4.1069
Al-Mashhadani, K. A. K. and O. M. J. Al-Qassab. 2017. Common Designs and Experiments Analysis in Genstat. Baghdad University. Al Jazeera Printing and Publishing. Baghdad. pp: 140
Almeida, H. J.; V. M. V. Carmona; V. S. Cavalcante; A. B. C. Filho; R. M. Prado; R. A. Flores; B. M. M. N. Borges and M. Mauad. 2020. Nutritional and visual diagnosis in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic L.) plants. Disorders in physic-ological activity nutritional efficiency and metabolism of Carbohydrates. Agronomy 10: 1572
Balouchi, Z.; G. A. Peyvast; M. Ghasemnezhad and M. Dadi. 2012. Effects of ascorbic acid in delaying florets senescence of broccoli during Post-harvest storage. J. Horticulture. Biology and Environment. 3. pp. 167-183
Ben-Fadhel, Y.; N. Ziane; S. Salmieri. and M. Lacroix. 2017. Combined Post-harvest Treatments for Improving Quality and Extending Shelf-life of Minimally Processed Broccoli Florets (Brassica oleracea var. italic L.). Food Bioprocess Technol. 11(1): 84-95
Bilgin; J. 2021. The effects of salicylic folic and ascorbic acid treatment on shelf-life quality of broccoli florets. J. Agricultural Production 2(1): 7-15
Cheruth, A. J. 2009. Changes in non-enzymatic anti-oxidants and ajmalicin production in catharanthus rosens with different soil salinity regimes. Bot. Res. Inter. 2(1): 1-6
Dris, R. 1998. Effect of pre-harvest calcium treatments on post-harvest quality of apples grown in finland. university of helsinki-department of plant production horticulture section-publication No 34 pp: 111 helsinki finland
Easterwood, G. W. 2002. Calcium’s role in plant nutrition. Fluid. J. 10: 16-19
El-Khattab, E. A.; E. A. Housini; and H. H. Khedr. 2019. Effect of some antioxidants (ascorbic acid, proline, and salic acid) on jojoba plants under circumstance of Sinai. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 50(4):1086-1093. https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v50i4.753
El-Mogy, M. M.; A. W. M. Mahmoud; M. B. I. El-Sawy and A. Parmar. 2019. Pre-Harvest foliar application of mineral nutrients to retard chlorophyll degradation and preserve bio-active compounds in broccoli. Agronomy. Vol. 9: 711
Goodwin, T. W. 1976. Chemstry and Biochemistry of Plant Pigment. 2nd Academic. Press. Landon, Newyork. San Francisco: pp: 373.
Guimaraes, F. V. A.; C. F. Lacerda; E. C. Marques; M. R. A. Miranda; C. E. B. Abreu; J. T. Prisco and E. Gomes-Filho. 2011. Calcium can moderate changes on membrane structure and lipid composition in cowpea plants under salt stress. Plant Growth Regulation. 65(1): 55-63
Guo, H.; Y. Chen and J. Li. 2018. Effects of 6-benzylaminopurine-calcium chloride-salicylic acid on yellowing and reactive oxygen metabolism of broccoli. Trans. Tranjin. Univ. 24: 318-325
Haciscvki, A. 2009. An over view of ascorbic acid. Biochemistry. 37(3): 233-255
Hamza, O. M. and D. K. A. AL-Taey. 2020. A study on the effect of glutamic acid and benzyl adenine application upon growth and yield parameters and active components of two broccoli hybrids. Int. J. Agricult. Stat. Sci. Vol. 16. Supp. 1. pp. 1163-1167.
Hanafy, A. A. H. 1996. Physiological studies on tiploun and nitrate accumulation in lettuce plants. J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ. 21: 3971-3994
Hawkesford, M.; W. Horst; T. Kichey; H. Lambers; J. Schjoerring; J. S. Moller and P. White. 2012. Functions of Macronutrients. In Marschner’s Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Marschner. P. Ed. Academic Press. London. UK. PP. 135-189
Hayat, I.; T. Masud and H. A. Rathore. 2003. Effect of coating and wrapping materials on the shelf-life of apple (Malus domestica. c.v. Brokh). Department of food technology. University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi. Internet Journal Safety. V.(5): 24-34
Ibraheem, H. I. M. 2010. Plant Samples Collected and Analyzed. Its Edn. Egypt. PP. 534
Jain, V.; S. Chawla; P. Choudhary and S. Jain. 2019. Post-Harvest calcium chloride treatments influence firmness cell wall components and cell wall hydrolyzing enzymes of ber (Ziziphus maurition Lamk.) fruits during storage. J. Food Sci. Technol. 56: 4535-4542
Jing, L.; Y. Wang; R. Wang; C. Wang; D. Lou and H. Wu. 2016. Effect of controlled freezing-point storage on quality of fresh-cut broccoli. J. Food Science and Technology. 12(6): 317-325
Kou, L.; T. Yang; X. Liu and Y. Luo. 2015. Effects of pre-and postharvest calcium treatments on shelf-life and postharvest quality of broccoli microgreens. Hort Science. 50(2): 1801-1808
Metwaly, E. E. and R. S. El-Shatoury. 2017. An attempt to alleviation of irrigation water deficit stress in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) by exogenous foliar application with some antioxidant. J. Plant Production. Mansoura Univ. 8(12): 1315-1322
Mohamed, M. H. M. and R. M. Y. Zewail. 2016. Alleviation of high temperature in cabbage plants grown in summer season using some nutrients antioxidants and amino acids as foliar application with cold water. J. Plant Production. Mansoura Univ. Vol. 7(4): 433-441
Oertli, J. J. 1987. Exogenous application of vitamins as regulators for growth and development of plants a review. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 150: 375-391
Osman; A. S.; M. H. A. Wahed and M. M. Rady. 2018. Ascorbic acid improves productivity physio-biochemical attributes and antioxidant activity of deficit-irrigated broccoli plants. J. Scientific and Technical Research. Volume. 11. Issue. 1. pp: 8196-8205
Page, A. L.; R. H. Miller and D. R. Kenny. 1982. Methods of soil analysis part (2) 2nd ed. Agronomy9. Am. Son. Agron. Madison. Wisconsin. Vol. 1159
Pignocchi, C. and C. H. Foyer. 2003. Apoplasticascorbate metabolism and its role in the regulation of cell signaling. Curr-Opin Plant Biol. 6: 379-389
Rhbarczyk-Plonska, A.; M. K. Hansen; A. B. Wold; S. F. Hagen; G. I. A. Borge and G. B. Bengtsson. 2014. Vitamin C in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) flower buds as affected by postharvest light uv-b irradiation and temperature. Postharvest Biology and Technology 98: 82-89
Salman, A. D., and E. J. Abdul Rasool. 2022. Effect of ozone enrichment and spraying with coconut water and moringa extract on vegetative growth and yield of broccoli plant under hydroponic system with modified NFT technology Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 53(2):406-414. https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i2.1549
Salman, A. D., and E. J. Abdul Rasool. 2022. Effect of ozone enrichment and spraying with organic nutrient on nutrient and water use efficiency and fertilizer productivity of broccoli plant cultivated hydroponically with modified NFT technology. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 53(2):660-668. https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1576
Shahnawaz, M. D.; R. Chauhan and D. Sanadhya. 2017. Impact of aluminum toxicity on physiological aspects of barley (Hurdeum volgare L.) cuttivers and its alleviation through ascorbic acid and salicylic acid seed priming. Int. J. Curr. Microbiology App. Sci. 6(5): 875-891
Thapa, U. and R. Rair. 2012. Evaluation of sprouting broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) genotypes for growth yield and quality. International. J. Agriculture Sciences. 4(7): 284-286
Watson, D. J. and M. A. Watson. 1953. Comparative physiological studies on the growth of yield crops. 111. effect of infection with beet yellow. Annals of Applied Biology. 40(1): 1-37
Witter, S. H. and E. Lansing. 2005. Foliar Application of Fertilizer Michigan State Univ. Issue. 2072-3875
Xu, D.; J. Zuo; Y. Fang; Z. Yan; J. Shi; L. Gao; Q. Wang and A. Jiang. 2021. Effect of folic acid on the postharvest physiology of broccoli during storage. Food Chemistry. 339-127981
Yan, Z. And J. Shi, L. And Gao, Q. Wang and J. Zuo. 2020. The combined treatment of broccoli florets with kojic acid and calcium chloride maintains post-harvest quality and inhibits off-odor production. Scientia Horticulturae. 262-109019.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.