phosphorus availability, solubility diagram, land use, amendments, incubation


This study was  investigated the P transformation in three soils gathered from different locations (Agricultural researches center in Tel Afar, Ain-Talawi and Sinu in Singar) in north of Iraq representing different gypsum content and land use [wheat (W), vegetable (V), uncultivated (Un)] after incubation period of (0, 5, 10, 30, 60, and 90) days. The soils were treated with 200 mg P kg-1 as superphosphate (S) or 30 g kg-1 soil manure as a cattle manure (A) or compost (p). The appropriate amounts of water were added to bring soil to estimated field capacity. After the specified time of each incubation period, sub-sample of soil analyzed for P, pH, EC and Ca. The results showed that P status affected by amendments and incubation periods. The soil which has more available P was the soil which treated with cattle manure. Generally, P was more available under (V) use compared to (W) use. After 90 days of incubation P solubility generally was higher than after 30 days. It appears from P solubility diagram that the best treatment was (A) which almost located between the two more soluble P compounds DCPD and DCP.


Metrics Loading ...


Ahmed A. W. A. M., M. Elsheikh and Y. E. G. El Mahi, 2018. Relationship between phosphorus fractions of some selected Sudanese soil orders to phosphate availability. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science.; 7(3):224-229.

Ajiboye, B., O. O. Akinremi, G. J. Racz and R. Simard, 2002. What type of P is in poop? Characterizing biosolids, hog and cattle manure phosphorus. in Proceedings of 45th Annual Manitoba Society of Soil Science Meeting, Winnipeg, MB. Feb. 5–6.

Al-Qurashy H. K. R. 2016. Effect Of Phosphate And Organic Fertilization On Soil Phosphorus Forms and Its Relationships With Its Availability To Corn Crop (Zea mays L.) In Some Calcareous Soils. M.Sc. Thesis, Dept. Soil Sci. and Water Resources Coll. Of Agric., Univ. of Basra. pp:49.

Al-Barzangi, A. F., K. V. Paliwal, R. A. D. Ahkavagholi, and H. A. Al-Abbas, 1980. Response of wheat crop to fertilizers (NPK) on the gypsiferous soils of Al-Dour region. Tech. Bull. 1 Res. Center of gypsiferous soils. No.1.

Al-Barzangi, Abd. A. F. 1986. Distribution of gypsum soils in Iraq. Symposium on gypsum soil and its impact on facilities and agriculture, 4-6 November 1986, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Baghdad, Iraq, pp:4-6

Ali, N. S and N. H. Majeed, 2016. Rhizosphere microorganisms and phosphorus availability for plants. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 47(2): 635-645.

Anderson, J. M., and J. S. I. Ingram, 1993. Tropical soil biology and fertility: A handbook of methods (2nd ed.). Wallingford: CAB International.

Barber, S.A. 1995. Soil Nutrient Bioavailability: A Mechanistic Approach, 2nd ed.; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.: New York, pp: 202–230.

Bremner, J. M. 1965. Inorganic Forms of Nitrogen. In: Black, C.A., et al., Eds., Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Agronomy Monograph No. 9, ASA and SSSA, Madison, 1179-1237.

Busman L, J. L. Gyles R, R. George and Micha, 2006. The nature of phosphorus in soils. University of Minnesota extension.

Chattha T. H., M. Yousaf and S. Javeed, 2007. Phosphorus adsorption as described by Freundlich adsorption isotherms under rainfed conditions of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Agriculture Science .44 (4) :551-556.

Galaly, T. 2010. Interaction Effect Of Phosphorus And Sulfur On Phosphorus Availability And Some Growth Parameters Of Corn Plant Grown In Calcareous soil. M. Sc. University of Salahuddin College of Agriculture, Department of Soil and Water.

Gee, G.W. and J.W. Bauder, 1986. Particle size analysis. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, pp: 383‒411.

Halajnia, A., G. H. Haghnia, A. Fotovat and R. Khorasani, 2009. Phosphorus fractions in calcareous soils amended with P fertilizer and cattle manure. Geoderma. 150:209-213.

Haynes R. J. and M. S. Mokolobate, 2001. Amelioration of Al toxicity and P deficiency in acid soils by additions of organic residues: a critical review of the phenomenon and the mechanisms involved. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst., 59,47–63

Hue N.V. 1992. Correcting soil acidity of a highly weathered Ultisol with chicken manure and sewage sludge. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 23, 241–264

Jackson, M. L. 1958. Soil chemical analysis. Verlag: Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ., 498 S. DM 39.40

Jakab A. 2020. The ammonium lactate soluble potassium and phos¬phorus content of the soils of north-east Hungary region: a quanti¬fying study. DRC Sustainable Future, 1:7-13

Kashem, M.A., O.O. Akinremi and G. J. Racz, 2004. Phosphorus fractions in soil amended with organic and inorganic phosphorus sources. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 84: 83-90.

Kordlaghari, M. P. K. and D. L. Rowell, 2006. The role of Gypsum in the reactions of Phosphate with soils. Geoderma. 132:105-115. 21. Kozhekov, D. and N. A. Yakovleva, 1977. Determination of carbonates minerals in soils. Soviet Soil Science. No.10:620-626.

Lindsay, W.L. 1979. Chemical Equilibria in Soils. John Wiley, London. (35). pp. 420–426

Makttoof, EA, JK. Kassim, and KH. Khuzale, 2020. Distribution of different forms of phosphorus in calcareous soils from middle and south of Iraq. Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Agriculture Sciences (P-ISSN: 2077-5822, E-ISSN: 2617-1479), 10 (1), 293-303.

Mohammed, Y. Ameen, B.H. Abdullah, A.M. A. Al-Kaisy, N.M. Abood, and S.H. Cheyed. 2019. Impact of weeds to sunflower under zero tillage and phosphorus fertilization. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 50(6):1486-1494.

Muhammad, H. J. and K. C. Jones, 1992. Phosphorus in gypsiferous soils: the influence of soil properties of P fractionation.Geoderma, 53 (1-2). pp: 97-104.

Muhawish, N. and R. Al-Kafaje, 2017. Soil organic carbon and phosphorus status after combined application of phosphate rock and organic materials in a gypsiferous soil. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science, 48(special issue) 60-70

Murphy J. and J. P. Riley, 1962. A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analytica Chimica Acta. 27, 31–36.

Naser, K. .2016. Kinetics of phosphorus release from added rock phosphate with some organic fertilizers on calcareous soil. Iraqi

Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 47(5): 1305-1311.

Okalebo, J. R., K.W. Gathua and P.L. Woomer, 2002. Laboratory Methods for Soil and Plant Analysis: A Working Manual. TSBF, Nairobi. pp: 32-35. 30. Olsen, S.R., C.V. Cole, F.S. Watanabe and L.A. Dean, 1954. Estimation of Available Phosphorus in Soils by Extraction with Sodium Bicarbonate; USDA-ARS Circ. 939, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC; pp: 1–19

Omran, ES.E. 2016. A simple model for rapid gypsum determination in arid soils. Model. Earth Syst. Environ. 2, 1–12

Page, R.H. Miller and D.R. Kenney, 1982. Methods of Analysis: Part 2-Chemical and Microbiological Properties, 2nd ed., The American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison.

Panahi S. V. S, M. Farhad and R. A. Mohammad, 2016. Sulfur application effect on pH measurement of wheat rhizosphere in calcareous soils. Biological Forum–An international Journal 8 (1):199–203.

Umar, M. Ismael. 2021. p- solubilizing microorganisms performance on manure and rock phosphate and their influences on soil and plant phosphorous in calcareous soils. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 52(2):437-444.

Waldrip, H. M., Z. He, and M.S. Erich, 2011. Effects of poultry manure amendment on phosphorus uptake by ryegrass, soil phosphorus fractions and phosphatase activity. Biol. Fert. Soils 47, 407–418.

Walkley, A. and I. A. Black,1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Sci. 37: 29-38.




How to Cite