• N. S. Al – Rubaie
  • H. A . Al – Mashhadani



Red sorghum, raw, body weight.


This experiment was conducted at the poultry \ Animal Production Department - College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences - University of Baghdad, for the period from 22/11/2020 to 2/1/2021 . To study the effect of adding germinated red grains sorghum (GRGS) and raw red grains sorghum(RRGS) as a complete substitute for maize to broiler diets on production performance. 225 broiler chicks were used in this experiment and randomly distributed to five treatments by 45 chicks/treatment with three replicates/treatment , 15 chicks/replicate : T1 control treatment (maize) ,  T2 (20%) GRGS + (80%) RRGS , T3 (40%) GRGS + (60%) RRGS , T4 (60%) GRGS + (40%) RRGS , T5 (80%) GRGS + (20%) RRGS . the data was analyzed statistically according to complete randomize design (CRD) , register Qualities understudy over three periods 1 to 10 days a starter diet, and during the period from 11 to 24 days on a growth diet, and during the period from 25 to 42 days on a finisher diet according to the production guide of Ross 308. The results were showed significant superiority (P<0.01) of the T2 treatment as compared with other treatments for the body weight and weight gain and feed intake, a significant superiority (P<0.01)  in the feed conversion ratio of the T1 treatment as compared with other treatments T2, T3, T5.


Metrics Loading ...


Alvarez M. A., Debattista N. B. and N . B . Pappano. 2008. Antimicrobial activity and synergism of some substituted flavonoids. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 53: 23-28

Al-Amery L.K.J. and A. T. S. Khalaf. 2017. The role of jasmonic acid and potassium nitrate on in vitro production of microtubers of two potato cultivars. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences 48(6), 1590-1599.

Al-Mashhadany, H. I, U. Kaka, E. A, Abdalla, A. M, Humam and H. U, Zamani. 2021. Eeffect of feeding fermented and non-fermented palm kernel cake on the performance of broiler chickens:a review.Worlds J.Poultry Sci.,77(2),377-388. /00439339.2021.1910472

Al-Gharawi, J. K. M., I. F. B., Al-Zamili, and H. K. H. Al-Janabi, 2016. Effect of barley cultivated for different times as supplemeted diet in some productive traits iof broiler chickens. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 48(1): 360-367.

‏Annon A.H. and I. J. Adbulrasool. 2020. Performance and molecular analysis of potato lines developed from gamma rays and ems applications. Iraqi.J.Agic.Sci.,51(5),1329-1336.

Bolton W, Blair R .1977. Poultry Nutrition. 4th Edn. MAFF Bulletin No. 174. HMSO, London

Chavan, J. K., Kadam, S. S., and L . R . Beuchat. 1989. Nutritional improvement of cereals by sprouting. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 28(5), 401-437

Choi, Y.M., Jeong, H.S., and J.S.Lee. 2006. Antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from some grains consumed in Korea, Food Chemistry, 2006, 103, 130–138.

Christaki E, Giannenas I, Bonos E, and P . Florou-Paneri. 2020. Chapter 2-Innovative uses of aromatic plants as natural supplements in nutrition. In: Florou-Paneri P, Christaki E, Giannenas I, editors. Feed Additives. London: Academic Press. pp: 19–34.

Dicko, M. H. 2005. Endogenous phenolics and starch modifying enzymes as determinants of sorghum for food use in Burkina Faso. Wageningen University.

Elnagar, S. H., and A . A . Abdel-Wareth. 2014. Performance, carcass criteria, and profitability of broiler chicks as affected by yellow corn replacement with sorghum grains and enzymes supplementation. Asian Journal of Poultry Science, 8(4), 123-130. DOI: 10.3923/ajpsaj.2014.123.130

Esonu , B . O . , A . B . I . Udedibie and C . R . Carlini . 1998. The effect of toasting, dry urea treatment, and sprouting on some thermostable toxic factors in the jack bean seed. Nig. J . Anim . Prod. 25: 36 – 39.

FAO .2011. Quinoa ancient crop to contribute to world food security

Franz C, Baser KHC, and W . Windisch. 2010. Essential oils and aromatic plants in animal feeding - a European perspective. A review. Flavour Fragrance J.;25:327–40.

Ganapathy S., Chandrashekhar V. M. and M . L . Narsu. 2010. Evaluation of the anti-allergic activity of gossiping and suramin in mast cell-mediated allergy model. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 47: 90-95

Hashemi S, and H . Davoodi. 2011. Herbal plants and their derivatives as growth and health promoters in animal nutrition. Vet Res Commun. 35:169–80

Hatungima, E., Katayirara, B. and M . F . Mwabonimana. 2015. Feeding impact of yellow maize variety “pool 8A” on egg production in layers. International Journal of Novel Research in Life Sciences 2(3): 27-32

Mabelebele, M., Siwela, M., Gous, R.M. and P . A . Iji. 2015. Chemical composition and nutritive value of South African sorghum varieties as feed for broiler chickens. South African Journal of Animal Science 45(2): 2017-212

Martinez-Florez S., Gonzalez-Gallego J., Culebras J. M. and M . J . Tunon. 2002. Flavonoids: properties and anti-oxidizing action. Nutr Hosp. 17: 271-278

Medugu, C. I., Saleh, B., Igwebuike, J. U., and R . L . Ndirmbita. 2012. Strategies to improve the utilization of tannin-rich feed materials by poultry. International Journal of Poultry Science, 11(6), 417–423

Narsih., Yunianta., and Harijono. 2012. The study of germination and soaking time to improve the nutritional quality of sorghum seed. Int. Food Res. J, 19(4), 1429–1432

NRC. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. Ninth revised edition, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., USA

Ogbonna, A. C., Abuajah, C. I., Ide, E. O., and U . S . Udofia. 2012. Effect of malting conditions on the nutritional and anti-nutritional factors of sorghum grist. Annals of the University Dunarea de Jos of Galati, Fascicle VI: Food Technology, 36(2), 64–72

Pablo A.ltuna, .2014 . Senior Group Manager Grains Department – Toepfer International Asia Pte. Ltd.

Perez-Maldoado, R. A. 2008. Chicken meat production in Australia using sorghum-based diets: Problems and solutions”. Proc. XXIII. World Poult. Cong. World Poult. Sci. Asso. June 30th to July 4th, Brisbane

Popescu, A., and R . Condei. 2014. Some considerations on the prospects of sorghum crop. Scientific papers, 295

Qasim A.A. and L. K. Bandr . 2017. Effect of supplementing different levels of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) to the diet on productive performance of broiler chicken, Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences,48(4):1081-1088. doi:10.36103/ijas.v48i4.365

Ryu, H.S., Kim, J., and H.S.Kim. 2006. Enhancing effect of Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (sorghum, su-su) extracts on mouse spleen and macrophage cell activation, Korean Journal of Food and Nutrition, 2006, 19, 176–182

Shihab, I, M. 2017. Effect of defferent levels of turmeric supplementation with diet on hymoral immune response to Newcastle and infectious disease virus and histopathological changes of some internal organ of broiler chickens, Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences,48 (Special issue):150-155.

Seitz, L.M. 2004. Effect of plant-type (purple vs. tan) and mold invasion on concentrations of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins in sorghum grain, AACC Annual Meeting Abstracts, 2004,

Serna-Saldivar, S.O., C.M.McDonough, and L.W.Rooney, .1991. The millets, in Handbook of Cereal Science and Technology (eds Lorenz, K.J. and K. Kulp), Marcel Dekker, pp. 271–300.

Tunon M. J., Garcia-Mediavilla M. V., Sanchez-Campos S. and J . Gonzalez-Gallego. 2009. Potential of flavonoids as anti-inflammatory agents: modulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression and signal transduction pathways. Curr Drug Metab. 10: 256-271.




How to Cite

N. S. Al – Rubaie and H. A . Al – Mashhadani (2023) “INFLUENCE OF GERMINATED RED – GRAINS SORGHUM ON PRODUCTION OF BROILER CHICKEN PERFORMANCE ”, IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 54(5), pp. 1305–1313. doi: 10.36103/ijas.v54i5.1829.