MCF7, AMJ13, comet assay, mitotic index, MTT assay


In this study, four types of basil seed extracts were used, being cold aqueous extract, hot aqueous extract, petroleum ether extract, and methanolic extract.Nine concentrations (10000, 5000, 2500, 1250, 625, 312.56, 156.25, 78.125, 39.0, 0.0) µg/ml were used to study the extracts cytotoxicity against two breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and AMJ13 beside REF cell line as normal cells. The methanol extract showed the highest inhibition rate of 64.4% on MCF7 cell line at concentration of 1250 µg/ml and 42.4% on AMJ13 cell line at a concentration  of 39.0 µg/ml with significant difference as compared to  control  sample during the 72hr exposure period. While the petroleum ether extract showed a lower inhibition rate of 16.02% at a concentration of 78.1 µg/ml on MCF7 cell line  and 35.3 % at a concentration of 312.5 µg /ml on AMJ13 cells during a 72hr exposure period, compared with the two aqueous extracts which showed a slight effect compared to the control. The cold aqueous extract showed the slight effect of 24.4% at a concentration of 5000 µg/ml on AMJ13 cell line and no toxicity was shown on MCF7 cells. All extracts showed no effect on REF normal cells. In all effective concentrations the basil seed extracts caused a damage to the DNA that cannot be repaired, and thus the cells are heading to programmed death. This effect on the genetic material was studied using the comet assay and mitotic index.


Metrics Loading ...


. Alsaraf1, K.. M Meada , A M Ahmed and I S abbas .2019.Selective cytotoxic effect of Plantago lanceolata L. against breast cancer cells, Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute, 31(1): 1-7

.Anudurga, G; V Thangaraman,T Suji; D Ravi and J Abraham.2016. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer screening of ocimum basilicum seeds, Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 6(3); 114-9

.Abdulaziz, A., M.A Wedad, A Qwait ; A Amena,A A Alaa, A M Amani and A , Wedad .2021. Low-temperature extracts of Purple blossoms of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) intervened mitochondrial translocation contributes prompted apoptosis in human breast cancer cells, Biological Research , 54(1): 2

Abd El-Azim H M. M ; A AM Ahmed; EL Mohamed ; A Sherin and E MD Amani 2015 Phenolic compounds and cytotoxic activities of methanol extract of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Microb. Biochem. Technol, 7(4): 182-185

Adeniyi S A 1 *, C. L. Orjiekwe 1 , J. E. Ehiagbonare 2 and B. D. Arimah.2010. Preliminary phytochemical analysis and insecticidal activity of ethanolic extracts of four tropical plants (Vernonia amygdalina, Sida acuta, Ocimum gratissimum and Telfaria occidentalis) against beans weevil (Acanthscelides obtectus), International Journal of the Physical Sciences 5(6): 753-762

Almalki A D. 2019 . Renoprotective effect of Ocimum Basilicum (Basil) against diabetesinduced renal affection in albino rats, Mater Sociomed. 31(4): 236-240

AHMED1 R ; M Alhan and A H Zainb..2016. The effect of ethanol extract of seed sweet bacil(Ocimum basilicum) against different gram negative and positive bacteria and fungi , asian academic research journal of multidisciplinary, 3(9):201-206)

AL-HILLI Z .2005 .The Effect of Crud Extrat Cyperus Rotundus.M.Sc. Thesis ,Dept. Biot Sci,Coll. of Scienice.,Univ.of Baghdad.pp.151

Al-Shammari M A ; A A Mortadha ; U A Mahfoodha ;A A Asmaa ; Y Nahi; R Khansaa and A H Ayman .2015. Establishment and characterization of a receptor negative, hormone-nonresponsive breast cancer cell line from an Iraqi patient. Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy. 7(7):223-30

Al-Thuwaini N M , A A Safaa and H I Ahmed, 2008. A chemical study of the volatile oil extracted from the leaves of the basil plant Ocimum basilicum and evaluation of its inhibitory activity on some pathological microorganisms. Al-Nahrain Journal of Science, 11 (2), pp.26-34

Al-aubadi, I.M.K., 2011. The Nutritional and chemical content of basil leaves Ocimum basilicum L. Journal of Biotechnology Research Center, 5(2), pp.67-74

Abbas, L. M. R., A. J. Hashim, and B. J. Kadhim. "Evaluation of myrtus communis flavonoid as antidermatophtic and keratinase inhibitior." Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science 51.6: 1525-1533.

Al-Samarai R F,,AL N Nasr AL H. 2016. Useing of comet assay for detection of the damage in dna due to the infection by blood parasites in cyrus goat kids . Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences – 47(1): 358-364.

BARAKAT N .2013. .Enviroment and Cytogentic Assment of some Pollutants Caused by the Combustion of Diesil Fuel from privet Electricity Generator thesis Dept,of Biology ,.Coll of Science Univ,of Baghdad pp,192

Camila M G1 ; R O de Souza2 ; P Fischer ; M F d Leão2 , J A Duarte1 ; A A Boligon ; M L Athayde ;L Zuravski1 ; L F S de Oliveira1 and M M Machado1,2017, Evaluation of basil extract (Ocimum basilicum L.) on oxidative, antigenotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects in human leukocytes cell cultures exposed to challenging agents, Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 53(1): 15098

Fagan D H. L.M Fettig ,A. S avdulov, H. Bbeckwith, S.P.Mark, Y.Yiho, W.Fan, P.A.Vitly and Y. Douglas . 2017. Acquired tamoxifen resistance in MCF-7 breast cancer cells requires hyperactivation of eIF4F-mediated translation. Hormones & cancer, 8(4): 219–229.

Freshney, R.I. 2005. Culture of Animal Cells. Amanual for Basic Technique. (5th ed.)

Willey- liss. A Juhn Wiley and Sons. Inc. Pup. New York. pp,267-308

Gogoi, J. Y. O. T. C. H. N. A., Karabi, D., and Dutta, P. A. P. I. A. 2021. Effect of preservatives and pesticides on mitotic index of Allium cepa roots-biological model experiment for genotoxicity. Poll Res, 40(3), 777-781

Hussain Y; I Nora; I A bdalh ; F Mohamem ; A A Rauh and A Nahar,2019, Water soluble hydrocolloid from seed (Ocimum basilicumL)mucilage Malaysian Applied Biology, 48(2), 97-101

Hamad, S. F., Z. O. Salman, and B. M. J. Alwash. 2021. Assessment of antioxidant and cytotoxic activiy of essential oil extracted from lavandula angustifolia callus leaves." Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences 52.6: 1549-1554.

Kuldeep D ; K Sharun ; M B. Gugjoo; R Tiwari ; M Alagawany ; M Yatoo; P Thakur ; M.N. Iqbal ; W . Chaicumpa,; Z M Shaaban ;S. Elnesr and M. R. Farag,2021, A Comprehensive Review on Chemical Profile and Pharmacological Activities of Ocimum basilicum, Food Reviews Internationa, 1-29

Mahta M; A Zaiter1; L Becker ; A Modarressi ; E Baudelaire and A,Dicko, 2020 Optimisation of phytochemical characteristics and antioxidative properties of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. seeds and Ocimum basilicum L. leaves superfine powders using new parting process , Phytochemical Analysis , 31(2): 154-163

Manosroi J.; P Dhumatanom, and A Manosroi, 2006. Anti-proliferative activity of essential oil extracted from Thai medicinal plants on KB and P388 cell lines. Cancer Lett., 235(1):114-120

Mohammad H M ; A S Zaynab and H Aymen.2011. Cytotoxic effect of the aqueous extract of Portulaca Oleracea L. on some cell line, Journal of Biotechnology Research Center. 5(1): 5-10

Mahmood S Kh ; T. S. Abdullah ; A. A. Mhawesh, .2019. Comet assay for rapid detection of DNA base damage in. Iraqi Journal of Agriculturalsciences, 50(1):495-499

MORI T ; M Ohnishi,; M Komiyama,: A Tsutsui; H Yabushita,.and H Okada, 2002 Growth inhibitory effect of Paradicsom paprika in cancer cell line oncology Reports , 9(4): 807-810

Mukhopadhyay I.; C and B.M Dhawan ,2004, Evalution of in vivo genotoicity of cypermerthin in drosophila melanogaster using the alkaline Comet assay .Mutagenesis 19(2): 85-9

Qamar, K., D,. S Siddiqui, B., Kabir, N, Aslam., H. S, Ahmed,., and S, Begum,. 2010. Anticancer activity of Ocimum basilicum and the effect of ursolic acid on the cytoskeleton of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Letters in Drug Design & Discovery, 7(10), 726-736

Rodrigo, M. and L Zacarias . 2007. Effect of postharvest ethylene treatment on carotenoid accumulation and the expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in the flavedo of orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) fruit. Postharvest. Biology and Technology, 43(1): 14-22

Saad Z; B Nadia; T Amer ; Y Y Nahi, H J Teeba; K Saba; A Rasha and A Amena , 2016 , Determination of DNA damage induced after bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) essential oil administrated in vivo, Iraqi Journal of Cancer and Medical Genetics (IJCMG), , 9(2): 176

- Salmman, I.S., 2013. Effect crude aquatic extract of leaves Ocimum basilicum on caner and normal cell lines in vitro. Journal of Biotechnology Research Center, 7(1), pp.5-13

Shamurad, H. Y., et al. 2019. Evaluation the antioxidant activity of sesame coat and sesame cake extracts. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences 50.3: 776-782.

Vasavi M.; B. Vedicherala,.; K Vattam,.; Y Ahuja,. and Q Hasan,. 2010. Assessment of genetic damage in inflammatory, precancerous, and cancerous pathologies of the esophagus using the comet assay. Genet. Test Mol. Biomarkers; 14(4): 477-482




How to Cite

Ayeda M.M and J. M. Awda (2023) “CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF BASIL SEEDS( Ocimum baslicum L) EXTRACTS ON SOME BREAST CANCER CELL LINES ( IN VITRO)”, IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 54(4), pp. 928–938. doi: 10.36103/ijas.v54i4.1782.