• Albandary Nasser Alsaloom




soybean flour; phenolic compounds; methanolic extract; antifungal; antioxidant


This study was aimed to estimate the antioxidants, antibacterial, and antifungal activities of methanolic extract from soybean seeds against pathogenic microorganisms. The methanolic extract was prepared from defatted soybean flour. Total phenolics content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and the major phenolic, flavonoid, and isoflavone compounds in soybean extract were estimated by HPLC. On the other hand, biological activities such as antioxidants, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were evaluated. The value of phenolic compounds was 8.59 mg GAE/g extract, while the value of flavonoids was 0.82 mg QE/g extract. The chemicals listed below were chromatographed and identified: syringic acid, quercetin, gallic acid, benzoic acid, genistein, daidzein, p-coumaric acid, glycitein, and ferulic acid. The methanolic extract showed the antibacterial and antifungal activity against tested microorganisms. Considering the results, it is possible to employ the methanolic extract from soybean seeds, which is rich in phenolic chemicals, as an antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal agent. It functions well as a pure, natural product.


Abbas, E., Osman, A., and M., Sitohy, 2020. Biochemical control of Alternaria tenuissima infecting post‐harvest fig fruit by chickpea vicilin. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 100(7): 2889-2897

Abd Elhamid, M. A., Mandour, A. E. S., Ismail, T. A., Al-Zohairy, A. M., Almowallad, S., Alqahtani, L. S., and A., Osman, 2022. Powerful Antioxidants and Cytotoxic Activities of the Methanol Extracts from Eight Soybean Cultivars. Molecules. 27(9): 2895

Abdallah, E. M., Qureshi, K. A., and K.H., Musa, 2017. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and phytochemical screening of Lupin seeds (Lupinus termis Forrsk.) from Sudan. CIBTech Journal of Microbiology. 6: 1-8

Abdul-Ridha¹, S. M., Baraaj¹, A. H., and S.R., Hamudi, 2015. Effect of High Dose of Soybean Meal on the Histology and Function of the Thyroid Gland in Albino Rat at Pre-and Postpuberty. Iraqi Journal of Science. 56(2A): 1018-1026

Acosta-Estrada, B. A., Gutiérrez-Uribe, J. A., and S.O., Serna-Saldívar, 2014. Bound phenolics in foods, a review. Food chemistry. 152: 46-55

Al-Jumaily, J. M. 2013. Yield Stability of Soybean Genotypes in Two Locations. The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 44(2): 200-205

Alu'datt, M. H., Rababah, T., Ereifej, K., and I., Alli, 2013. Distribution, antioxidant and characterisation of phenolic compounds in soybeans, flaxseed and olives. Food chemistry. 139(1-4): 93-99

Ani, V., Varadaraj, M. C., and K.A., Naidu, 2006. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of polyphenolic compounds from bitter cumin (Cuminum nigrum L.). European Food Research and Technology. 224(1): 109-115

Atallah, O. O., Osman, A., Ali, M. A., and M. Sitohy, 2021. Soybean β‐conglycinin and catfish cutaneous mucous p22 glycoproteins deteriorate sporangial cell walls of Pseudoperonospora cubensis and suppress cucumber downy mildew. Pest Management Science. 77(7): 3313-3324

Brighente, I. M. C., Dias, M., Verdi, L. G., and M.G. Pizzolatti, 2007. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Some Brazilian Species. Pharmaceutical Biology. 45(2): 156-161

Chen, J. H., and C.T. Ho, 1997. Antioxidant activities of caffeic acid and its related hydroxycinnamic acid compounds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 45(7): 2374-2378

Chung, I. M., Seo, S. H., Ahn, J. K., and S.H., Kim, 2011. Effect of processing, fermentation, and aging treatment to content and profile of phenolic compounds in soybean seed, soy curd and soy paste. Food Chemistry. 127(3): 960-967

Gülçın, İ., Oktay, M., Kıreçcı, E., and Ö. İ. Küfrevıoǧlu, 2003. Screening of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) seed extracts. Food chemistry. 83(3): 371-382

Jasim, A. M., and G.M. Aziz, 2019. Degradation efficiency of phenolic compounds using immobilized peroxidase purified from soybean. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 50(3): 928-935

Khattab, E. A., Essa, R. E., and M.A., Ahmed, 2019. Drought tolerance of some soybean varieties in newly land. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 50(3): 741-752

Kim, E. H., Ro, H. M., Kim, S. L., Kim, H. S., and I.M., Chung, 2012. Analysis of isoflavone, phenolic, soyasapogenol, and tocopherol compounds in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] germplasms of different seed weights and origins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 60(23): 6045-6055

Kim, E. H., Kim, S. H., Chung, J. I., Chi, H. Y., Kim, J. A., and I.M., Chung, 2006. Analysis of phenolic compounds and isoflavones in soybean seeds (Glycine max (L.) Merill) and sprouts grown under different conditions. European Food Research and Technology. 222(1): 201-208

Król-Grzymała, A., and R., Amarowicz, 2020. Phenolic compounds of soybean seeds from two European countries and their antioxidant properties. Molecules. 25(9): 2075

Laodheerasiri, S., and N.H., Pathirage, 2017. Antimicrobial activity of raw soybean, soybean flour and roasted soybean extracted by ethanol-hexane method. British Food Journal. 119(10): 2277-2286

Liu, J., Chang, S. K., and D., Wiesenborn, 2005. Antioxidant properties of soybean isoflavone extract and tofu in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 53(6): 2333-2340

Matson, J. M., Kopeck, M. J. H., and P.G., Quiet, 1970. Evaluation of the Bauer Kirby-Sherris-Turck single-disc diffusion method of antibiotic susceptibility testing. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy.‏ 445-454

Quettier-Deleu, C., Gressier, B., Vasseur, J., Dine, T., Brunet, C., Luyckx, M., and F., Trotin, 2000. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) hulls and flour. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 72(1-2): 35-42

Quideau, S., Deffieux, D., Douat‐Casassus, C., and L., Pouységu, 2011. Plant polyphenols: chemical properties, biological activities, and synthesis. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 50(3): 586-621

Ramadan, M. F., Osman, A. M. O., and H.M., El-Akad, 2008. Total antioxidant potential of juices and beverages-Screening by DPPH in vitro assay. WISSENSCHAFTLICHE VERLAGSGESELLSCHAFT STUTTGART. 104: 235-239

Seo, A., and C.V., Morr, 1984. Improved high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of phenolic acids and isoflavonoids from soybean protein products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 32(3): 530-533

Sitohy, M., Mahgoub, S., Osman, A., El-Masry, R., and A., Al-Gaby, 2013. Extent and mode of action of cationic legume proteins against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis. Probiotics and antimicrobial proteins. 5(3): 195-205

Valentao, P., Fernandes, E., Carvalho, F., Andrade, P. B., Seabra, R. M., and M., de Lourdes Bastos, 2002. Antioxidant activity of Hypericum androsaemum infusion: scavenging activity against superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 25(10): 1320-1323

Wang, Q., Ge, X., Tian, X., Zhang, Y., Zhang, J., and P., Zhang, 2013. Soy isoflavone: The multipurpose phytochemical. Biomedical reports. 1(5): 697-701

Xiao, Y., Zhang, S., Tong, H., and S., Shi, 2018. Comprehensive evaluation of the role of soy and isoflavone supplementation in humans and animals over the past two decades. Phytotherapy Research. 32(3): 384-394.‏




How to Cite

Albandary Nasser Alsaloom (2023) “TESTING AND EVALUATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN SOYBEAN”, IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 54(1), pp. 85–92. doi: 10.36103/ijas.v54i1.1678.