• Suhad S. Mahmood



Enterobacteriace, carbapenem resistance, metallo β lactmase, EDTA combined disc test


This study was aimed to detect the prevalence of blaVIM and blaNDM genes among Enterobacter cloacae isolates that were isolated from Iraqi patients. About 50 bacterial isolates were collected from different hospitals in Baghdad city and all these isolates were diagnosed using biochemical tests and CHROMagar culture media and conformed using the Vitek II system. The antibiotic susceptibility for E.cloacae isolates  was determined using the disk diffusion (Kirby Bauer) method and the results showed that  these bacteria were showed  resistance to Cefepime and Meropenem antibiotics in percentage (50%), (40%) respectively. In addition it is resistant to Amikacin, ampicillin/sulbactam, Piperacillin, and aztreonam was (20%), (50%), (40%), and (55%) respectively. Also it has been noted that all isolates showed resistance to Cefixime in percentage (100%). EDTA combined disc test was used to detect the ability of E. cloacae isolates to produce carbapenemase and the results were showed that only 8 isolates were gave positive results  , While the prevalence of blaVIM and blaNDM was determined using the conventional Polymerase chain reaction technique.  And the result showed that only four isolates harbored blaNDM while blaVIM was present in 3 isolates


Metrics Loading ...


-Annavajhala, M. K. Gomez-Simmonds, A.Macesic, N. Sullivan ,S.B. Kress , A.Khan , S.D.Giddins , M.J.Stump , S.Kim , G.I. Narain , R.E.C.Verna and A.C. Uhlemann, 2019. Colonizing multidrug-resistant bacteria and the longitudinal evolution of the intestinal microbiome after liver transplantation. Nature communications, 10(1), 4715.

-Armin, S., F. Fallah, , L. Azimi, H. S. Kafil, H. Ghazvini, K. Hasanzadeh, and A. Karimi, 2018. Warning: spread of NDM-1 in two border towns of Iran. Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France), 64(10), 125–129

-Bocanegra-Ibarias, P., E. Garza-González, R. Morfín-Otero, H. arrios, L.Villarreal-Treviño, E.Rodríguez-Norieg, U.Garza-Ramos ,S. Petersen-Morfin and J. Silva-Sanchez 2017. Molecular and microbiological report of a hospital outbreak of NDM-1-carrying Enterobacteriaceae in Mexico. PloS one, 12(6), e0179651.

-Coelho A., N. Piedra-Carrasco, R. Bartolomé, J. N.Quintero-Zarate , N.Larrosa, , T.Cornejo-Sánchez, G. Prats, M. P.Garcillán-Barcia, la Cruz and J. J.González-Lopéz 2012. Role of IncHI2 plasmids harbouring blaVIM-1, blaCTX-M-9, aac(6')-Ib and qnrA genes in the spread of pneumoniae multiresistant Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella strains in different units at Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain. International journal of antimicrobial agents, 39(6), 514–517.

-Dai, W., S. Sun, P. Yang, ,S. Huang, X.Zhang and L. Zhang, 2013. Characterization of carbapenemases, extended spectrum β-lactamases and molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-non- susceptible Enterobacter cloacae in a Chinese hospital in Chongqing. Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases, 14, 1–7.

-Davin-Regli, A., and J. M. Pagès, 2015. Enterobacter aerogenes and Enterobacter cloacae; versatile bacterial pathogens confronting antibiotic treatment. Frontiers in microbiology, 6, 392.

-Galani, I., P.D.Rekatsina, D.Hatzaki, , D.Plachouras, , M.Souli, and H.Giamarellou, (2008). Evaluation of different laboratory tests for the detection of metallo-β-lactamase production in Enterobacteriaceae. Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy, 61(3), 548-553

-Ghanavati, R., M. Emaneini, ,D. Kalantar-Neyestanaki, A.S.Maraji ,M. Dalvand, R.Beigverdi and F.Jabalameli, 2018. Clonal relation and antimicrobial resistance pattern of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- and AmpC β-lactamase-producing Enterobacter spp. isolated from different clinical samples in Tehran, Iran. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, 51(1), 88–93.

-Harada, K., T.Shimizu , Y.Mukai, K.Kuwajima, T. Sato, A.Kajino, M. Usui, Y Tamura, Y. Kimura, T. Miyamoto, Y.Tsuyuki, A. Ohki and Y. Kataoka, 2017. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobacter spp. isolates from companion animals in Japan. PloS one, 12(3), e0174178.

-Hoffmann, H., E. Stürenburg, J. Heesemann, and A. Roggenkamp 2006. Prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in isolates of the Enterobacter cloacae complex from German hospitals. Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 322–330.

-Lee, J. Y., Y.K.Hong, H.Lee and K.S. Ko 2017. High prevalence of non-clonal imipenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacter spp. isolates in Korea and their association with porin down-regulation. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 87(1), 53–59.

Leong, L., D. Shaw, L.Papanicolas, D. Lagana, I. Bastian and G.B. Rogers 2017. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae Strains Isolated from Australian Hematology Patients with Bacteremia. Genome announcements, 5(33), e00756-17.

Moradigaravand, D., C. J. Boinett, V. Martin, J. S. Peacock and J. Parkhill, 2016. Recent independent emergence of multiple multidrug-resistant Serratia marcescens clones within the United Kingdom and Ireland. Genome research, 26(8), 1101–1109.

Peirano, G., Y.Matsumura, M.D. Adams, P. Bradford, M. Motyl, L. Chen, B. N. Kreiswirth, and J. Pitout, 2018. Genomic Epidemiology of Global Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacter spp., 2008-2014. Emerging infectious diseases, 24(6), 1010–1019.

Pérez, A.,M.Poza, A.Fernández, M.Fernández, S.Mallo, M.Merino, S.Rumbo-Feal, M.P.Cabral, and G. Bou 2012. Involvement of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump in the resistance, fitness, and virulence of Enterobacter cloacae. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 56(4), 2084–2090.

Peymani, A.,T.N. Farivar, R.Sanikhani, A.Javadi and R. Najafipour 2014. Emergence of TEM, SHV, and CTX-M-extended spectrum β-lactamases and class 1 integron among Enterobacter cloacae isolates collected from hospitals of Tehran and Qazvin, Iran. Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.), 20(5), 424

Rosa, J. F., C. Rizek, A. P. Marchi, T. Guimaraes, L. Miranda, C. Carrilho, S. A. Levin, and S. F. Costa, 2017. Clonality, outer-membrane proteins profile and efflux pump in KPC- producing Enterobacter sp. in Brazil. BMC microbiology, 17(1), 69.

Shahid, M., A. Malik, M. Akram, L. M. Agrawal, A. U. Khan, and M. Agrawal 2008. Prevalent phenotypes and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae at an Indian tertiary care hospital: plasmid-mediated cefoxitin resistance. International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, 12(3), 256–264.

Tacão, M., A.Correia, and I.S. Henriques,. 2015. Low Prevalence of Carbapenem-Resistant Bacteria in River Water: Resistance Is Mostly Related to Intrinsic Mechanisms. Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.), 21(5), 497–506.

Villa, J., E. Viedma, P.Brañas, M.A.Orellana, J. R. Otero, and F. Chaves 2014. Multiclonal spread of VIM-1-producing Enterobacter cloacae isolates associated with In624 and In488 integrons located in an IncHI2 plasmid. International journal of antimicrobial agents, 43(5), 451–455.

Wang, S., S. Z. Xiao, F. F. Gu, J. Tang, X.K.Guo, Y.X.Ni, J.M. Qu, and L.Z. Han. 2017. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of clinical Enterobacter cloacae bloodstream isolates in Shanghai, China. PloS one, 12(12), e0189713.




How to Cite