• Jassam Q. T.
  • E. H. Ali
  • M. S. Ghaylan



Strategic crop, marketing functions, quantitative factors, qualitative factors, qualitative response models.


This study was aimed to measure marketing efficiency and study important factors affecting , using TOBIT qualitative response model for wheat crop in Salahalddin province. Results revealed that independent factors such as (marketing type, crops duration in the field, average marketing cost, distance between farm and marketing center, and average productivity) had an impact on wheat marketing efficiency. This impact varied in size and direction due to value of parameters. Values of marketing efficiency fluctuated within cities and towns in the province. The average value on the province level was 76.75%. This study was recommended developing marketing infrastructures which is essential to efficiency increases. In addition, it is important to decrease routine administrative procedures in governmental marketing institutions and establish marketing centers, even if they will be temporary, in harvesting and marketing period near the production areas.


AHMED A. F., 2015 .An estimation of costs functon of wheat wast governorate as case study for planting season 2013-2014 . The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences . 46(4): 1046-1059

Abo - Oura K.,2016, Production Econ-omics and Marketing of The Wheat Crop in The Arab Republic of Egypt. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Agricultural Econo-mics, Faculty of Agriculture University of Ain Shams. pp:175

AL-Bakri T.,2015, The production and marketing of grain and their impact on the achievement of sustainability food security adescriptive study 0f the wheat harvest in Iraq. Academic Studies of Social and Humanities , Department of Economic and Legal Sciences, Issue 14 , pp:3-10

Al-Dabbagh, J. M., 2014. The Agricultu-ral Marketing Economics. Iraq. Murtada Administration for Publication and Distribu-tion, pp:728

Al – Dale, A. M.and M. E. Al Far,2012, An economic study of the loss in productive of wheat crop as the most important cereal crops in AL-Beheira Governorate Journal of Agricultural Economics and Social Sciences, Mansoura University, Agricultu-ral Economics Research Institute, 3rd edition (9): 1285-1297

Aldrich, J. H. and F. D. Nelson., 1984, Linear Probability Logit and Probit Models Series: Quantitative Applications in The Social Sciences.SAGE. Publications. Inc: 1st.pp:26

Al-Hadithi, T.S., 1994, Estimating marketing margin for the major vegetable crops in iraq, afield study, The Iraqi Jour-nal of Agricultural Sciences, 24 (I2).:47

Al-Lahibi F.I., 2020 ,Economics of Marketing of The Wheat Crop in Iraq Salah Al-Deen Governorate as Model . Ph.D. Dissertation. College of Agriculture University of Tikrit. pp:267

Ali, E. H. and M. A. Hamaza. 2018. An economic analysis for the factors effecting on net farm income using panal data. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 49(3): 410-417.

Ali,E.H., H.J.Muhmed and N.Jassem , 2016. Use probability regression models to study the factors affecting efficiency of the production of tomato. The AL-Furat Journal of Agricultural Sciences .the Third Scientific Conference . pp: 111-117

Al-Sanosy M. and F.G. Morad ,2015 , Marketing efficiency of the wheat crop in sohag governorate, Agriculutural Econom-ics Research Institute ,Agric. Res. Center, Dokki, Egypt . 46 (1):83-92

Anzi, L.,2017. Measuring the Tech-nological Change of Barley Production in Wasit Governorate. ). M.Sc. Thesis, Depar-tment of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture University of Baghdad. pp:194

Bdewe,N. and G.Thamer. 2017. Efficiency of marketing of the table eggs in the private sector in province of baghdad in 2015. The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science . 48 ( Issue4): 1021-1031

Bdewe.N.,2016 , Measuring Efficiency of Marketing of Table Eggs Private Sector In Baghdad Province (Last quarter 2015) , M.Sc. Thesis, Iraq, University of Baghdad , College of Agriculture.pp:131

Faeq M.F.,2018, Measurement of Effic-iency of Management of Broiler Fields via using Models of Quality Response (Baghdad Province as a Case Study). M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Agricultural Econo-mics, College of Agriculture University of Baghdad. pp:194.

Faeq,M.F and E.H.Ali .2019 . Using probability regression models to measuring management efficiency for broiler projects. The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences . 50 (Special Issue): 76-83

Gujarati, N. D., 2004. Basic Economet-ric.Mc-Graw Hil,Co.Press.LTD.pp:580- 635

Ismail, M. and M.ALkonibit, 1995. The Agricultural Marketing. Dar Mars Publishe-d, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. pp;17

Jassam, Q.T., 2017. Economic study to measure the efficiency and items of marketing margins of tomato crop year 2015 AL-Taji District, The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 48 (Issue3): 791-796

Musi, M.Z and A.F.ALmokri, 1998, The Principles of Agricultural Marketing, The Press and Publication Administration, Faith University Tripoli, the Libyan.pp:182

Rami A. and A.k. Mishaal,2017, Effect of agricultural policy on marketing wheat crop in Wasit province. Al-Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences. Coll. Of Agri. Univ. of Anbar. 15( Issue2): 625-635

Thamer, G. H., 2013. The Efficiency of marketing for the most important vegetable crops in Anbar, Iraq's conservative, field study. Agricultural Research Journal, Kafr Al-Sheikh University, 39(lssue 4): 462-472

Thamer,G.H., 2013. The relative impor-tance of the terms of the marketing margin between the wholesale price and consumer price and efficiency of marketing some of the vegetables and fruit crops in the city of Baghdad (Case Study). Agricultural Rese-arch Journal, Kafr Al-Sheikh University, 39(Issue 4):449-461

Uzzman , R., 2013, Marketing Effic-iency of Board Rice in some Selected Areas of Dinjapur District , Bangladish , Bangala , M.Sc.Thesis, Department of Agribusiness and Marketing. Bangala Agricultural University, pp:94 .




How to Cite

T. , J. Q., Ali, E. H. and Ghaylan, M. S. . (2022) “ESTIMATING FACTORS AFFECTING WHEAT MARKETING EFFICIENCY USING TOBIT MODEL”, IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 53(4), pp. 941–949. doi: 10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1606.