EFFECT OF BLENDED TRIPLE SUPERPHOSPHATE WITH UREA ON N, P CONCENTRATIONS IN PLANT AND GROWTH OF BROAD BEAN IN A GYPSIFEROUS SOIL
Keywords:TSP, urea, fertilizer blending, gypsiferous soils.
A field experiment was conducted on a gypsiferous sandy clay loam soil to examine the effects of blending Triple superphosphate (TSP) with urea on N, P concentrations in plant and growth parameters of broad bean. The experiment was a factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. The first factor was type of application as briquettes which include T1 (one layer of TSP between two layers of urea) and T2 (one layer of urea between two layers of TSP), the second factor was application depth (5 and 10 cm D1 and D2), and the third factor was application rate (1.0, 1.25, and 1.50 as much as N and P fertilizer recommended for broad bean, R1, R2 and R3). Broad bean was planted and the following growth parameters were taken: plant height, no. of leaves, plant dry weight, chlorophyll content, leaf area, N and P concentration in plant. Results showed that the following treatments: T1 of blending (briquette no. 1), D1 and R2 were significantly superior over other treatments in all growth parameters and N, P concentration in plant. The triple interaction treatment T1D1R2 was significantly superior over other treatments with values reached 60.99 cm, 442.7 leave plant-1, 20.32 cm2, 63.87 Spad, 5.59 g plant-1, 5.55 %, and 0.27 %, respectively for plant height, no. of leaves plant-1, leaf area, chlorophyll content, plant dry matter, N and P conc. in plant.
Aasamae, E., E. Arumeel, M. Einard, and M. Veiderma. 1993. Obtaining granular NPK fertilizers from single superphosphate and Urea. Fert. Res. 35: 161- 167
Ali, N. S. and N. H. Majeed. 2016. Rhizosphere microorganisms and phosphorus availability for plants. The Iraqi J. of Agric. Sci. 47 (2): 635- 645
Al-Selawy, R. L. A., A. H. Saudi, and K. Al- Fartoosi. 2018. Effect of spray with concentrations of Zinc on growth and yield of two broad bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivars. J. of Thi-Qar Univ. for Agric. Res.7: 1-12
Al-Tai, T. A. A. 2011. Management of Gypsiferous Soils. Al-Hilal Dar and Library for Printing and Publishing. Beirut. Lebanon. pp: 27
Bordoli, J. M. and A. P. Mallarino. 1998. Deep and shallow banding of phosphorus and potassium as alternatives to broadcast fertilization for No- Till corn. Agron. J. 90: 27- 33
Borges, R., and A. P. Mallarino. 2001. Deep banding phosphorus and potassium fertilizers for corn managed with ridge tillage. Soil Sci. Sco. Am. J. 65: 376- 384
Chien, S. H., D. Sompongse, J. Henao, and D.T. Hellums. 1987. Greenhouse evaluation of phosphate availability from compacted phosphate rocks with urea or with urea and triple superphosphate. Fert. Res. 14: 245- 256
Cresser, M. S. and J. W. Parsons. 1979. Sulphuric- Perchloric acid of digestion of plant material for determination of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesiu. Analytical Chimica Acta. 109: 431- 436
Day, P. R. 1965. Particle fractionation and particle analysis. P. 545- 567. In: C. A. Black et. Al. (ed.)Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1. Agronomy 9: ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI. USA
Dhary, S. I. and M. H. K. Al – Baldaqi. 2017. Response of different varieties of Faba bean to plant source organic fertilizers> The Iraqi J. of Agric. Sci. 48(4): 1141- 1147
Fan, M. X., A. F. Mackenzie, and H. D. Blenkhorn. 1996. A modified urea based NP fertilizer: UREA - TSP- MAP combinations. Fert. Res. 45: 217- 220
Fan, M. X. and A. F. Mackenzie. 1994. Corn yield and phosphorus uptake with banded urea and phosphate mixtures. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 58: 249- 255
Fan, M. X. and A. F. Mackenzie. 1993. Urea and phosphate interactions in fertilizer microsites: Ammonia volatilization and pH changes. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 57: 839- 845
Fan, M. X. and A. F. Mackenzie. 1995. The toxicity of banded urea to corn growth and yield as influenced by triple superphosphate. Can J. of Soil Sci. 75: 117- 122
FAO. 1990. Management of gypsiferous soils. Bulletin 62. FAO. Rome. Italy.
Fernandez, F., and D. Schaefer. 2012. Assessment of soil phosphorus and potassium following real time kinematic –guided broadcast and deep – band placement in Strip – till and No - till. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 76: 1090- 1099
Frazier, A. W., J. R. Lehr, and J. P. Smith. 1967. Urea – monocalcium phosphate, a component of mixed fertilizers. J. Agric. Chem. 15: 345- 350
Hansel, F. D., D. A. Ros Diaz, T. J. C. Amado, and L. M. Rosso. 2017. Deep banding increase phosphorus removal by soybean grown under No- Tillage production systems. Agron. J. 109(3): 1091- 1097
Havlin, J. L., D. Beaton, S. L. Tisdale, and W. L. Nelson. 2005. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers. 7th ed. Prentice Hall. New Jersey. Pp: 183.
Jasim, A. H., H. M. Rashid, and M. M. Ghani. 2016. Effect of foliar nutrition of phosphorus and potassium on vegetative growth characteristics and yield of broad bean. Euphrates J. of Agric. Sci. 8(3): 50- 55
Khairul Alam, M. D., Richard W. Bell, Nazmus Salahin, Shahab Pathan, A.T.M.A.I. Mondol, M.J. Alam, M.H. Rashid, P.L.C. Paul, M.I. Hossain and N.C. Shil. 2018. Banding of fertilizer improves phosphorus acquisition and yield of zero tillage maize by concentrating phosphorus in surface soil. Sustainability. 10: 1- 24.
Kissel, D. E., M. L. Cabrera, and R. B. Ferguson. 1988. Reactions of ammonia and urea hydrolysis products with soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 52: 1793- 1796
Lu, D. Q., S. H. Chien, J. Henao, and D. Sompongse. 1987. Evaluation of short - term efficiency of diammonium phosphate versus urea plus single superphosphate on a calcareous soil. Agron. J. 79: 896- 900
Mallarino, A. P., J. M. Bordoli, and R. Borges. 1999. Phosphorus and potassium placement effects on early growth and nutrient uptake of No-Till corn relationship with grain yield. Agron. J. 91: 37- 45
Mallarino, A. P. and R. Borges. 2006. Phosphorus and potassium distribution in soil following long term deep – band fertilization in different tillage systems. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 70(2): 702- 707
Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation. 1992. Chemical fertilizer Use Manual. Central Committee of Fertilizers. Pp. 23
Mortvedt, J. J., L. S. Murphy, and R. H. Follet. 1999. Fertilizer Technology and Application. Meister Publishing Co. Ohio. USA. Pp. 220
Nkebiwe, P. M., M. Weinmann, A. Bar-Tal, and T. Muller. 2016. Fertilizer placement to improve crop nutrient acquisition and yield: A review and meta- analysis. Field Crops Res. 196: 389- 401
Ouyang, D. S., A. F. Mackenzie, and M. X. Fan. 1999. Availability of banded triple superphosphate with urea and phosphorus use efficiency by corn. Nutr. Cycl. In Agroecosystems. 53: 237- 247
Page, A. L., R. H. Miller, and D. R. Keeney. 1982. Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Second Ed. Agronomy Series 9. Am. Soc. of Agron. Madison. WI
Rose, A. T., and D. A. Ruiz Diaz. 2015. Fertilizer placement and tillage interaction in corn and soybean production. Kansas State Univ. Agric. Exp. Stat. & Coop. Ext. Service. Kansas Fert. Res. 2015 Tech. Report
SAS Institute Inc. 2002. Statistical Analysis System. SAS Inc. Cary, NC
Tisdale, S. L., and W. L. Nelson. 1975. Soil fertility and fertilizers. Second Edition. The Macmillan Company. New York. Pp. 239
Savant, N.K. 1994. Simplified methylene blue method for rapid determination of cation exchange capacity of mineral soils. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 25: 3357-3364
Van – Alphen, J. D. and F. D. Rios Romero. 1971. Gypsiferous soils. Notes on characteristics and management. Inst. L. and Rec. Improv. Bulletin12. Wageningen, The Netherlands. Pp. 165
Widdowson, F. V, and A. Penny. 1969. Effects on barely and kale of NPK fertilizers containing differing proportions of urea and ammonium nitrate, and either triple superphosphate or mono – urea phosphate. The J. of agric. Sci. 73: 125- 132.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.