• S. T. S. Al-dabbagh



collenchyma tissue, crystals, glandular hairs, leaves stalks, vascular bundles


This study was conducted on the 22 taxa of the genus Trifolium L. which grow naturally as wild plants in all geographical districts in Iraq. A comparative study of the leaf petioles was anatomically examined by paraffin method. Petiole cross-section outline shapes have divided the genus species into fourteen groups and sub-groups. According to the microscopical characteristics the cortex of petioles showed to contain layers of various tissues, the collenchyma tissue observed sub-epidermally in some species, and cortexes of the others were devoid of collenchyma. The sclerenchyma strands were noted in three patterns; above vascular bundles, above and beneath vascular bundles, and the sclerenchyma strands completely surrounded the vascular bundles in some species. Petiole cross-sections have been divided into three categories as; three vascular bundles and absent of accessory vascular bundles, three vascular bundles with one of accessory vascular bundle, three vascular bundles with two accessory vascular bundles. The comparative results confirmed that these characteristics collectively are of high taxonomic value and can contribute to separating the studied genus species, finally, based on these variations, the anatomical classification key was constructed to separate the genus taxa.


Al-dabbagh, S. T. S., and J. F. Saeed. 2019. Some diagnostic anatomical features in two species of the genus Valeriana L. (Valerianaceae) from Northern Iraq. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 50(4):63–75.

Al-dabbagh, S. T., and J. F. Saeed. 2020. Morphological and anatomical variations of fruits in some taxa of Valerianaceae Batsch family. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences 51(Special Issue):101–115

Al-Masoudi, R. K. H. 2020. Morphological, anatomical and geographical distribution studies of species Horwoodia dicksoniae (Turrill) in Iraq. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences 50(6):1613–1620

Al-Newani, H. R. H. 2019. Systematics significance of morphological and anatomical diversity of Portulaca oleracea. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences 50(5):1383–1389

Al-Rawi, A., 1964. Wild plants of Iraq with their distribution. Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, State Board for Agricultural and Water Resources Research, National Herbarium of Iraq, Baghdad, Iraq. pp: 76-78

Aliwy, S., L. K. A. Al-Azerg, H. Redah, and S. ANameer. 2017. Anatomical Comparative for Two Species Amaranthus albus L. and Amaranthus gracilis Defs (Amaranthaceae) in Iraq. The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences 6(48):3651–3627

American Herbal Pharmacopoeia. 2017. Red Clover flowering Tops, Aerial Parts and Dry extracts Trifolium pratense L. Roy Upton RH DipAyu 2017 American Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Scottes Valley, CA USA, pp:5.

Cincovic T 1972. Genus Trifolium. In: Josifovic M (ed) Flora SR Srbije IV. SANU, Beograd, pp: 424–471

Coombe DE 1972. Trifolium L. In: Tutin TG et al (eds) Flora Europaea, vol 2. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp: 157–172

Crang R, S. Lyons-Sobaski, and R. Wise 2018. Plant Anatomy A Concept-Based Approach to the Structure of Seed Plants Gewerbestrasse, Switzerland Springer Nature Switzerland AG. pp: 132

Darwesh, T. D. 2017. Plant Biodiversity and Ethnobotanical Properties of Various Plants in Choman (Erbil-Iraq). Kahramanmaraṣ Sütḉü Imam University, Kahramanmaraṣ, Turkey. pp: 35

Davis, P.H. 1970. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, Vol. 3, (ed. 3). University Press, Edinburgh. pp: 384-448

Esau, K. 1965. Plant Anatomy of Seed Plants. Second edi. New York. Sydney: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp: 601

Fahn, A. 1982. Plant Anatomy. 3rd edt. Great Britain: Pergamum International Library. pp: 208-231

Krstic L, Lj. Merkulov, J. Lukovic, and P. Boza. 2008. Histological components of Trifolium L species related to digestive quality of forage. Euphytica 160:277–286

Lawrence, G. H. M. 1951. Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. New York, USA: The Macmillan Publishing Co., INC. pp: 547

Lluga-Rizani, K., D. Šoljan, S. Rizani, and K. Kurteshi. 2019. Morphological and Anatomical Studies on Hill Clover (Trifolium alpestre) (Fabaceae) from Sharri. 11(3):121–131

Metcalfe, C. R., and L. Chalk. 1950. Anatomy of the Dicotyledons. Vol.I. London, UK: Oxford University Press. pp: 1500

Metcalfe, C. R., and L. Chalk. 1957. Anatomy of the Dicotyledons, Leaves, Stem, and Wood in Relation to Taxonomy with Notes on Economic Uses. Vol. 1. Oxford, Great Britain: Oxford University Press. pp: 502

Najmaddin, Ch. 2013. Anatomical Palynological and Molecular Studies of Vitaceae and Lee in Peninsular Malaysia and Some Cultivars of Vitis vinifera From Iraq. University of Science and Technology, Bangi, Malaysia. pp: 255

Ridda, T. J., and W. H. Daood. 1982. Geographical Distribution of Wild Vascular Plants of Iraq. Baghdad, Iraq: National Herbarium of Iraq. pp: 13-14

Sabudak, Temine, and N. Guler. 2008. Review article Trifolium L. – A review on its phytochemical and pharmacological profil. Phytotherapy Research 22(4):544–549

Shkuratova, N. V. 2015. Anatomical Structure of Stems of Some Species of Trifolium L. in Correspondence with the Systematics and Ecology. Modern Phytomorphology 8:91–94

Simpson, M. G. 2006. Plant Systematics. Canada: Elsevier Inc. p: 259-262

Stace, C. A. 1980. Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics. Bath, Great Britain: Pitman Press. pp: 70-115

Taia, W. K. 2004. Leaf characters within tribe Trifolieae (Family Leguminosae). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 7(8):1463–1472.

Townsend C. C. and E. Guest. 1974. Flora of Iraq, Leguminales Vol. 3 Ministry of Agriculture Republic of Iraq, Baghdad, Iraq. pp:150-196

Zohary, M. 1946. The Flora of Iraq and Its Phytogeographical Subdivision. No. 3. edited by Dep. Agriculture. Bull. Baghdad. Baghdad, Iraq: Government Press

Zohary M, and D. Heller. 1984. The genus Trifolium. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Ahva Printing Press Jerusalem. pp: 67

Zorić, L., L. Merkulov, J. Luković, and P. Boža. 2010. Comparative seed morphology of Trifolium L. species (Fabaceae). Periodicum Biologorum 112(3):263–272.

Zoric, L., L. Merkulov, J. Lukovic, and P. Boza. 2012. Comparative analysis of qualitative anatomical characters of Trifolium L. (Fabaceae) and their taxonomic implications: Preliminary Results. Plant Systematics and Evolution 298(1):205–219

Zoric, L., L. Merkulov, and J. Lukovic. 2014. Crystal macropatterns in vegetative and reproductive organs of Trifolium species. Phyton - Annales Rei Botanicae 54(1):123–133.




How to Cite

Al-dabbagh, S. T. S. . (2022) “ (FABACEAE) IN IRAQ”., IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 53(4), pp. 867–877. doi: 10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1599.