• A. J. A. Al-Saedi
  • T. A. Abdulkareem



Semen attributes, Embryo transfer, Holstein, bulls.


This study was conducted to compare the semen immediate and microscopic characteristics of the three lines of Holstein bulls. Twenty-one Holstein bulls were divided into three groups belonging to the three lines of Holstein bulls; born in Iraq (Australian origin; n = 8), resulting from embryo transfer technology (New Zealand origin; n = 7), as well as the first generation (F1) resulted from two parents obtained from embryo transfer technology in Iraq (New Zealand origin; n = 6). The ET and L groups showed greater (P≤0.01) ejaculate volume, live sperms percentage, and plasma membrane integrity percentage compared to the F1 group of bulls. Moreover, ET bulls exhibited higher (P≤0.01) sperm concentration than L and F1 bulls. The ET and F1 bulls were superior (P≤0.01) to L bulls in the percentages of sperm’s cell individual motility and normal sperms. The percentage of DNA damage was significantly (P≤0.05) decreased in the F1 group compared to the L group but did not differ from those of the ET group. In conclusion, the ET and F1 Holstein bulls were superior to L bulls in most immediate and microscopic semen characteristics and their adaptation to the Iraqi environment.


Metrics Loading ...


Abdulkareem, T.A. 2005. Seminal proteins of Holstein – Friesian bulls associated with vitamin C supplementation. The Iraqi J. Agric. Sci., 36 (4), 185-189

Abdulkareem, T. A. and O. H. Al-Zaidi. 2018. Effect of adding aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis leaves and some other antioxidants to milk–based extender on post-cooling and post-cryopreservative sperm' s individual motility and live sperm percentage of Holstein bulls. Al-Anbar J. Vet. Sci., 11 (1), 37-53

Abdulkareem, T. A., S. M. Eidan, F. F. Ibrahim, A. A. Hameed, R. G. Dano, A. J. Alwan and O. A. Mohamed. 2018. Effect of GnRH treatment at embryo transfer on pregnancy rate and earl y embryonic death of Holstein-Friesian cows. J. Kerbala Agric. Sci., 5(5): 690-696.

Ali, M. D., F. F. Ibrahim, T. A. Abdulkareem, S. M. Eidan, Q. A. Ameen, M. G. Abdul-Karim and O. A. Mohammed 2015. Evaluation of Artificial Insemination activities for cattle in Iraq: Survey study. Ministry of Agriculture, pp. 48-51

Al-Zaidi, O. H. A. 2018. Effect of the adding Melissa officinalis water extract and some antioxidants to Tris and milk-based extenders on post-cryopreserved semen characteristics of Holstein bulls. Ph.D. Thesis. College of agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad

Aydos, O. S., Y. Yükselten, F. Kaplan, A. Sunguroğlu and K. Aydos. 2015. Analysis of the correlation between sperm DNA integrity and conventional semen parameters in infertile men. Turk. J. Urol., 41 (4): 191-197

Baiee, F. H., H. Wahid, Y. Rosnina, O. Ariff, N. Yimer, Z. Jeber and F. Harighi. 2018. Impact of Eurycoma longifolia extract on DNA integrity, lipid peroxidation, and functional parameters in chilled and cryopreserved bull sperm. Cryobiology, 80:43-50

Balić, I. M., S. Milinković-Tur, M. Samardžija and S. Vince. 2012. Effect of age and environmental factors on semen quality, glutathione peroxidase activity and oxidative parameters in Simmental bulls. Theriogenology, 78:423– 431

Barth, A. D. and R. J. Oko. 1989. Abnormal morphology of bovine spermatozoa. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press. pp: 130–279

Bearden, H. J., J. W. Fuquay and S. T. Willard. 2004. Semen and Its components. In: Reproduction in Domestic Animals. Chapter 14, 6th edn., Pearson Prentice Hall Press, NJ, USA. pp: 173-183

Berridge, M. J. 2012. Calcium signaling remodeling and disease, Biochem. Soc. Trans. 40: 297–309

Chemineau, P., Y. Caginie, Y. Guerin, P. Arguer and J. C. Vallet. 1991. Training Manual on Artificial Insemination in Sheep and Goat. FAO. Animal Production and Health, Paper No: 83

Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple Rang and Multiple F-test. Biometrics. 11: 1-42

Eidan, S. M., R. I. Khalil and Z. H. Ali. 2017. Effect of melatonin implantation on semen quality of Holstein bulls: 1. Ejaculate volume and total normal morphology sperm. Al-Anbar J. Vet. Sci., 10 (1): 145-153

Erenpreiss, J., M. Spano, J. Erenpreisa, M. Bungum and A. Giwercman. 2006. Sperm chromatin structure and male fertility: Biological and clinical aspects. Asian J. Androl., 8: 11-29

Fuerst-Waltl, B., H. Schwarzenbacher, C. Perner, and J. Sölkner. 2006. Effects of age and environmental factors on semen production and semen quality of Austrian Simmental bulls. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 95:27-37

Giritharan, G., N. Ramakrishnappa, A. Balendran, K. M. Cheng and R. Rajamahendran. 2005. Development of in vitro tests to predict fertility of bulls. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 85: 47–52

Hancock, J. L. 1952. Morphology of bull spermatozoa. J. Exp. Biol., 29 (3): 445-453

Januskauskas, A., A. Johannisson and H. Rodriguez-Martinez. 2003. Subtle membrane changes in cryopreserved bull semen in relation with sperm viability, chromatin structure, and field fertility. Theriogenology, 60:743-758

Jeyendran, R. S., H. H. Van der Ven, M. Perez-Pelaez, B. G. Crabo and L. J. D. Zaneveld. 1984. Development of an assay to assess the functional integrity of the human sperm membrane and its relationship to other semen characteristics. Reproduction, 70 (1): 219-228

Karoui, S., C. Díaz, C. González-Marín, M. E. Amenabar, M. Serrano, E. Ugarte, J. Gosálvez, R. Roy, C. López-Fernández and M. J. Carabaño. 2012. Is sperm DNA fragmentation a good marker for field AI bull fertility. J. Anim. Sci., 90 (8):2437-2449

Menon, A. G., H. W. Barkema, R. Wilde, J. P. Kastelic and J. C. Thundathil. 2011. Associations between sperm abnormalities, breed, age, and scrotal circumference in beef bulls. The Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 75: 241-247

Morrell, J. M., T. Nongbua, S. Valeanu, I., Lima Verde, K. Lundstedt-Enkel, A. Edman and A. Johannisson. 2017. Sperm quality variables as indicators of bull fertility may be breed dependent. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 185:42-52

Murphy, E. M., A. K. Kelly, C. O’Meara, B. Eivers, P. Lonergan and S. Fair. 2018. Influence of bull age, ejaculate number, and season of collection on semen production and sperm motility parameters in Holstein Friesian bulls in a commercial artificial insemination centre. J. Anim. Sci., 96: 2408-2418.

Phengchat, R., H. Takata, K. Morii, N. Inada, H. Murakoshi, S. Uchiyama and K. Fukui. 2016. Calcium ions function as a booster of chromosome condensation. Scientific Reports, 6: 38281

Salisbury, G. M., N. L. Van Denmark and J. R. Lodge. 1978. Semen Evaluation. In: Physiology of Reproduction and Artificial Insemination of Cattle. 2nd edn. W. H. Freeman & Company, San Fracisco, USA. pp. 428-440

SAS. 2012. Statistical Analysis System, User's Guide. Statistical. Version 9.1th ed. SAS. Inst. Inc. Cary. N.C. USA

Schenk, J. L. 2018. Principles of maximizing bull semen production at genetic centers: A review. Animal, 12: s142- s147.

Senger, P. L. 2012. Endocrinology of the male and spermatogenesis. In: Pathways to Pregnancy and Parturition. 3rd edn. Chapter 10. Current Conceptions, Inc.‏, USA. pp. 202-227

Simon, L. and S. E. M. Lewis. 2011. Sperm DNA damage or progressive motility: which one is the better predictor of fertilization in vitro?. Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine, 57: 133–138

Snoj, T., S. Kobal, and G. Majdic. 2013. Effects of season, age, and breed on semen characteristics in different Bos taurus breeds in a 31-year retrospective study. Theriogenology. 79:847–852

Sultan, O. A. A. 2018. Relationship of osteopontin, CD9 and COX-2 genes with semen characteristics of Holstein bulls. Ph.D. Thesis, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad.

Sultan, O. A. A. and S. M. Eidan. 2020. Association of CD9 gene with semen quality of Holstein bulls: 1. Fresh semen. Biochem. Cell. Arch., 20 (1): 2721-2725

Suyadi, S., E. Herwijanti, W. A. Septian, A. Furqon, C. D. Nugroho, R. F. Putri and I. Novianti. 2020. Some factors affecting the semen production continuity of elite bulls: reviewing data at Singosari National Artificial Insemination Center (SNAIC), Indonesia. The 4th Animal Production International Seminar, IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 478, 012080

Swanson, E. W., and H. J. Bearden. 1951. An eosin-nigrosin stain for differentiating live and dead bovine spermatozoa. J. Anim. Sci., 10(4): 981-987

Tejada, R. I., J. C. Mitchell, A. Norman, J. J. Marik and S. Friedman. 1984. A test for the practical evaluation of male fertility by acridine orange (AO) fluorescence. Fertil. Steril. 42(1):87-91

Vincent, P. S., S. L. Underward, C. Dolbec, V. Bouchard, T. Kroetsch and P. Blondin. 2021. Bovine semen quality control in artificial insemination centers. In: Bovine Reproduction. R. M. Hopper (Ed.), Chapter 18, 2nd edn. John Wiley & Sons Inc

Vincent, P., S. L. Underwood, C. Dolbec, N. Bouchard, T. Kroetsch and P. Blondin. 2012. Bovine semen quality control in artificial insemination centers. Anim. Reprod., 9(3):153-165

Walton, A. 1933. Technique of artificial insemination. mp. Bur. Anim. Genet. 56, Iiius- Edinburgh

Xie, G., C. Lu, Y. Zhu, S. Zhu, E. Yang and X. Jin. 2018. Analysis on the association between sperm DNA fragmentation index and conventional semen parameters, blood microelements and seminal plasma ROS in male patients with infertility. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 15: 5173-5176

Zini, A., S. Phillips, A. Courchesne, J. M. Boman, A. Baazeem, F. Bissonnette, I. J. Kadoch and M. San Gabriel. 2009. Sperm head morphology is related to high deoxyribonucleic acid stainability assessed by sperm chromatin structure assay. Fertil. Steril., 91: 2495-2500.




How to Cite