• A. K. Al-Jubouri
  • N. H. Al-Saadi
  • M. A. Kadhim



Copper nanoparticles, Plant extracts, Antibacterial, Anti-inflammatory activity


A variety of organisms, including plants and bacteria, fungi, seaweeds, and microalgae, are involved in the biological synthesis of nanoparticles. Copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) can be synthesized using plant extracts, which is considered to be one of the safest methods in green chemistry. Copper-NPs were synthesized from the leaves of M. communis, which were extracted with water. The first indication that CuNPs have been synthesized is the change in color of the solution from light yellow to dark brown. Several different techniques were used to characterize CuNPs. The Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles in the range of 300 to 700 nm was investigated using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and the Fourier Transforming Infrared analysis (FT-IR) was used to identify functional groups in biomolecules that act as a reducing and capping agent for NPs. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of CuNPs revealed that they are crystalline. In this study, the size and surface properties of biosynthesized nanoparticles were determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Copper-NPs had an average size of 53.55 nm, according to the results. In this study, the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of CuNPs and extract were investigated. The antibacterial activity of CuNPs and M. communis extract was evaluated against Gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, and Lactobacillus salivarins). Zone inhibition of up to 25 mm was observed in Staphylococcus aureus when the extract concentration was 100000 µg/mL. At various concentrations, the anti-inflammatory activity of both the extract and the CuNPs was assessed in vitro using the assays (albumin denaturation assay, membrane stabilization assay, and proteinase inhibitory activity). According to the findings, CuNPs demonstrated a significant anti-inflammatory activity when compared to a standard drug.


Akin, M., A., Aktumsek, and A. Nostro, 2010. Antibacterial activity and composition of the essential oils of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. and Myrtus communis L. growing in Northern Cyprus. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(4), 531–535.

Al-musawi, Z. F., N. H., Al-saadi, and I. M. Ali, 2022. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Silver Nanoparticle Synthesized from Dodonaea viscosa L . Extract. 020029(5).

Al-Musawi, Z. F. H., and N. H. M. Al-Saadi, 2021. Antitumor Activities of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles using Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Leaves Extract. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 34(2), 42–59.

Alavi, M., and N. Karimi, 2018. Characterization, antibacterial, total antioxidant, scavenging, reducing power and ion chelating activities of green synthesized silver, copper and titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Artemisia haussknechtii leaf extract. Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology, 46(8), 2066–2081.

Alyousef, A. A., M., Arshad, R., AlAkeel, and A. Alqasim, 2019. Biogenic silver nanoparticles by Myrtus communis plant extract: biosynthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity. Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment, 33(1), 931–936.

Birla, S. S., S. C.,Gaikwad, A. K., Gade, and M. K. Rai, 2013. Rapid Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Fusarium oxysporum by Optimizing Physicocultural Conditions. The Scientific World Journal, 2013.

Bouma, M. 2002. Pharmaceutical Development of the Novel Metal-Based Anticancer Agents NAMI-A and AP 5280. In Thesis

Das, B., M. D., Choudhury, A., Dey, Das A., Talukdar, K. H., Nongalleima, and L. Deb, 2014. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of rhizome part of drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Smith. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6(6), 43–49

Das, P. E., I. A., Abu-yousef, A. F., Majdalawieh, and S. Narasimhan, (n.d.). Supplementary Material Green synthesis of encapsulated copper nanoparticles using a hydroalcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves and assessment of their antioxidant and anti-microbial activities Supplementary Figure 1 . Resazurin microtiter assay pla. 971, 2–5

Din, M. I., F., Arshad, Z., Hussain, and M. Mukhtar, 2017. Green Adeptness in the Synthesis and Stabilization of Copper Nanoparticles: Catalytic, Antibacterial, Cytotoxicity, and Antioxidant Activities. Nanoscale Research Letters, 12.

El Hartiti, H., A., El Mostaphi, M., Barrahi, A. Ali, N., Ben, Chahboun, R., Amiyare, A., Zarrouk, B., Bourkhiss, and M. Ouhssine, 2020. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Myrtus communis leaves. Karbala International Journal of Modern Science, 6(3), 251–258.

Flaih, L. S., and N. H. Al-Saadi, 2020. Characterization and clinical applications of silver nanoparticles synthesized from cassia obtusifolia leaves extract. Plant Archives, 20, 1082–1088

Gondwal, M., and G. Joshi Nee Pant, 2018. Synthesis and Catalytic and Biological Activities of Silver and Copper Nanoparticles Using Cassia occidentalis. International Journal of Biomaterials, 2018.

Govindappa, M., B., Hemashekhar, M. K., Arthikala, V., Ravishankar Rai, and Y. L. Ramachandra, 2018. Characterization, antibacterial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antityrosinase activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Calophyllum tomentosum leaves extract. Results in Physics, 9, 400–408.

Gunathilake, K. D. P. P., K. K. D. S., Ranaweera, and H. P. V. Rupasinghe, 2018. Influence of boiling, steaming and frying of selected leafy vegetables on the in vitro anti-inflammation associated biological activities. Plants, 7(1).

Hassanien, R., D. Z. Husein, and M. F.Al-Hakkani, 2018. Biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles using aqueous Tilia extract: antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Heliyon, 4(12), e01077.

Kiruba Daniel, S. C. G., G., Vinothini, N., Subramanian, K., Nehru, and M. Sivakumar, 2013. Biosynthesis of Cu, ZVI, and Ag nanoparticles using Dodonaea viscosa extract for antibacterial activity against human pathogens. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 15(1).

Kulkarni, A., M., Cp, C., Govindappa, Y. L., Ramachandra, and P. S. Koka, 2015. Phytochemical analysis of Cassia fistula and its in vitro antimicrobial , antioxidant activities. Advancement in Medical Plant Research, 3(February), 8–17

Kuppusamy, P., M. M., Yusoff, G. P., Maniam, and N. Govindan, 2016. Biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant derivatives and their new avenues in pharmacological applications – An updated report. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 24(4), 473–484.

Lin, Y. S., and C. L. Haynes, 2010. CH2-Hemolysis and size different MSN. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 132(13), 4834–4842

Memon, R., A. A., Memon, S. T. H., Sherazi, Sirajuddin, A.,Balouch, M. R., Shah, S. A.,Mahesar, K., Rajar, and M. H. Agheem, 2020. Application of synthesized copper nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Ziziphus mauritiana L. leaves as a colorimetric sensor for the detection of Ag+. Turkish Journal of Chemistry, 44(5), 1376–1385.

MIZUSHIMA, Y., and M. KOBAYASHI, 1968. Interaction of anti‐inflammatory drugs with serum proteins, especially with some biologically active proteins. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 20(3), 169–173.

Nosiri, C. I., U. O., Arunsi, A. C.,Ngwogu, J., Idume, and O. C. Atasie, 2019. International Journal of Green and Proximate and preleminaryphytochemical analysis of leaves of Cassine Glauca plant. International Journal of Green and Herbal Chemistry, 8(1), 30–36.

Parekh, J., and S. Chanda, 2010. Antibacterial and phytochemical studies on twelve species of Indian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biomedical Research, 10(2), 175–181.

Prabhu, Y. T., K., Venkateswara Rao, V., Sesha Sai, and T. Pavani, 2017. A facile biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles: A micro-structural and antibacterial activity investigation. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, 21(2), 180–185.

Sakat, S. S., A. R., Juvekar, and M. N. Gambhire, 2010. In-vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata linn. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2(1), 146–155

Shende, S., N., Gaikwad, and S. Bansod, 2016. Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial potential of copper nanoparticle against agriculturally important Phytopathogens. International Journal of Biology Research, 1(4), 41–47

Sierra-Ávila, R., M., Pérez-Alvarez, G., Cadenas-Pliego, V., Comparán Padilla, C., Ávila-Orta, Pérez O.,Camacho, E., Jiménez-Regalado, E., Hernández-Hernández, and R. M. Jiménez-Barrera, 2015. Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles Using Mixture of Allylamine and Polyallylamine. Journal of Nanomaterials, 2015.

Sumbul, S., M., Aftab Ahmad, M., Asif, and M. Akhtar, 2011. Myrtus communis Linn. - A review. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 2(4), 395–402.




How to Cite